Articles by "International"


Hong Kong independence elements are making Trouble again, and the Mainland will not Tolerate it: Chinese Puppet Media

In recent years, the issue of "Hong Kong Independence" has attracted attention and its development has become increasingly uncontrollable. During this period, the "Hong Kong Independence" rioters incited social chaos, staged violent demonstrations, and even beat up the police and smeared government departments. Everywhere. These "Hong Kong independence" elements have wandered to the edge of the law, breaking through the bottom line of morality time and time again, pulling Hong Kong's economy and politics into a downward track, and seriously affecting the normal life of Hong Kong citizens.


 Hong Kong Liberty Claimants Create Violence Chinese Embassy in UK

Not only that, according to the Global Times, on October 1, which is the National Day and Mid-Autumn Festival, which is celebrated by the people of the whole country, a total of more than a dozen "Hong Kong independence" thugs took the lead in making trouble and launching violence in front of the Chinese Embassy in the UK. The behavior, publicly posting the "Hong Kong Independence" slogan, was extremely bad and caused a great negative impact.


Carrie Lam says not to use violence to curb violence

Earlier, the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Carrie Lam said that the SAR government would not "use violence to curb violence" and would continue to "stop violence and curb violence." We may hope that the whole society will work together to restore Hong Kong to normal soon.

 Regarding this sudden violent incident, the Chinese Embassy in the United Kingdom also issued a statement on its official website on the same day, sternly condemning the evil deeds of the "Hong Kong independence" elements, and resolutely curbing the "Hong Kong independence" thugs and dealing with the "Hong Kong independence" elements. We will never condone any illegal behavior.


Hong Kong independence thugs burned the national flag and acted despicably downstream

From the beginning of the First Opium War to the return of Hong Kong to the motherland in 1997, Hong Kong’s experience during this period is a great testimony to China’s step-by-step victory. However, in such a significant city, unbelievable things continue to happen. 

The "Hong Kong Independence" thugs openly burned the Chinese national flag and posted "Hong Kong Independence" slogans on the double festival day, and launched various riots, affecting people's hearts and acting extremely despicable.


Protesters ask China to Leave Hong Kong
Hong Kong Liberals

However, China will never condone the words and deeds of "Hong Kong independence" elements. A few days ago, the Chinese Embassy in the United Kingdom issued a statement strongly condemning the despicable acts of "Hong Kong independence" thugs who burned the national flag and ran into the embassy.

 The Chinese Embassy in the UK has also lodged solemn representations with the British police and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Development. Both parties fulfill their responsibilities and obligations and will surely bring the perpetrators to justice as soon as possible.


Resolutely curb Hong Kong independence thugs and safeguard the integrity of sovereignty

Facing the rampant "Hong Kong independence" mobs from time to time, China will not tolerate or condone, and resolutely defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the motherland. It is bound to strengthen legislation and use laws to punish the perpetrators. On the other hand, it strengthens propaganda against "Hong Kong independence".

To solve the problem at the root, strengthen the crackdown on "Hong Kong independence" from the perspective of the government and the law, and believe that a single spark can start a prairie fire. 

As long as the Chinese people are united, the "Hong Kong independence" forces can be fundamentally contained.


This new requirement of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government for civil servants is justified

The Civil Service Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government issued a notice to various departments of the Special Administrative Region Government on the 12th, announcing the new requirements for all appointments as civil servants on or after July 1, 2020. Civil servants who join the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government on or after this date must take an oath or take an oath The statement supports the Hong Kong Basic Law, allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and is responsible to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.


New Civil Servant Requirement in HK not among New Things

In fact, this new requirement for Hong Kong civil servants should not fall into the category of "new things". After all, loyalty to the government was originally the meaning of the profession of a national civil servant. 

This is the case all over the world, and Hong Kong is of course no exception. On the contrary, in the long period of unrest in Hong Kong, the behavior of some Hong Kong civil servants "eating and smashing the pot" is rare in the world.


Image picture showing Hong Kong Civil Service Logo
Hong Kong Civil Service Logo

As of the end of September this year, a total of 46 Hong Kong civil servants suspected of participating in illegal public activities have been investigated or prosecuted by the police, and 23 of them are still in the probation period.

 These very few civil servants in Hong Kong do not accept "One Country, Two Systems" ideologically, and do not recognize that the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is part of the People's Republic of China. 

They have participated in activities that attempt to subvert the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government in their actions. 

Talk about love for Hong Kong and the country? 

What about serving the people of Hong Kong?


According to the Hong Kong Basic Law and the "Civil Service Code", upholding the Hong Kong Basic Law, loyal to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and being accountable to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government are the consistent responsibilities of civil servants, and candidates for civil service positions must clearly understand and accept these responsibilities. 

The word "consistent" points out the heavy responsibility of being a civil servant. It is precisely because of the bad behavior of civil servants who have lost their morals and their duties during the chaos in Hong Kong, it is very necessary for Hong Kong civil servants to make such a formal public confirmation of the responsibilities they must bear. 

This is also in response to the Hong Kong people’s desire for a government worthy of trust. desire.


Article 6 of the Hong Kong National Security Law 

Article 6 of the Hong Kong National Security Law stipulates that residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall sign documents confirming or sworn to uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China and allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China when participating in elections or assuming public office. 

Therefore, this "new requirement" for Hong Kong civil servants also complies with the relevant provisions of the Hong Kong National Security Law.

A person who is not patriotic is not worthy of serving the country, and a person who always wants to mess up his city is not worthy of a public office serving the citizens, because he has no "heart" at all.

Hong Kong Civil servants to take an oath 

As the spokesperson of the Civil Service Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government said, requiring civil servants to take an oath or make a statement is a public confirmation and a true manifestation of the responsibilities and expectations of civil servants. 

It will help to further maintain and promote the core values ​​of the civil servants. Ensure that the Hong Kong SAR government can effectively govern.


National civil servants are a sacred profession, and those who are not worthy of virtue must be removed from the team in time. According to Hong Kong media reports, the Secretary of the Civil Service of Hong Kong, Nie Dequan, said that civil servants will be arranged to sign declarations or oaths in phases.

Currently involving civil servants who entered employment on or after July 1 this year, it is only the first stage, and will be extended to July 1. 

Civil servants who have been recruited before and are still in the probationary period will eventually cover all current civil servants.

 The vast majority of people will take the form of signing a declaration, but directorate personnel, disciplined forces, and administrative ranks need to take an oath.



Hong Kong’s current 180,000 civil servants are employed by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. They provide various services to Hong Kong citizens and are the mainstay of maintaining effective governance, stability and prosperity in Hong Kong. 

Nie Dequan said that supporting the Basic Law and allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is "naturally right" for public officials. 

It is hard to imagine an organization that can accept employees openly confronting their bosses and openly scold their bosses. 

Indeed, this "new requirement" of the Hong Kong SAR government for civil servants is also justifiable.



Carrie Lam on Relationship between Shenzhen and Hong Kong

Do not mind the GDP being overtaken by Shenzhen, and look forward to in-depth cooperation between the two places

According to news from Hong Kong Government News on October 12, the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Carrie Lam led a delegation of the Special Administrative Region Government to Shenzhen in the afternoon to attend the 40th Anniversary Celebration of the Establishment of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone on the 14th.


Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council announced the "Implementation Plan" for the construction of a pilot demonstration zone in Shenzhen, and determined the blueprint for the new stage of reform and opening up. 

The goal is to become the core engine for the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Shenzhen's future development in the Greater Bay Area The lead role is more clear.


In an interview with Shenzhen Satellite TV on the 13th, Carrie Lam talked about the topic of "Shenzhen surpasses Hong Kong in economic indicators such as GDP".

 In this regard, she said that she didn't mind people always saying that Shenzhen's GDP has surpassed that of Hong Kong because she has confidence in Hong Kong's competitiveness, and she also has expectations for healthy competition and in-depth cooperation between the two places.


Carrie Lam is interviewed by Shenzhen Satellite TV

Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor said: "I don't mind people always saying that Shenzhen's GDP has climbed to the top of Hong Kong, because Shenzhen has a richer population and land than us.

 However, in the future development, I also hope that the central government will continue to give the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone some first steps. The pre-designed, ground-breaking, and innovative policies have enabled Hong Kong and Shenzhen to cooperate on a brand new platform."


Carrie Lam has confidence in Hong Kong Companies

Carrie Lam mentioned that she has confidence in people and companies in Hong Kong, because their competitiveness is strong and their adaptability is not bad.

 However, Hong Kong is currently constrained by land issues, coupled with a more complicated political environment, far more complicated than Shenzhen, and very affected by the external environment, which has caused some constraints on Hong Kong's current development.


She pointed out: "Hong Kong’s advantage stems from'one country, two systems', and the central government is unwavering in its policy of'one country, two systems'. 

Therefore, under'one country, two systems', Hong Kong and Shenzhen should find something that can enrich the'one country, two systems'. It can also give Shenzhen better opportunities for development. I think these opportunities exist."


Hong Kong and Shenzhen

When talking about the specific advantages of "one country, two systems," Carrie Lam said: 

"For example, because Hong Kong is under the protection of the Basic Law, we have the freedom of capital in and out, the freedom of currency exchange, the legal system in line with international standards, and a large number of professional services.

 Talents. These can be matched with the technological innovation capabilities and advanced manufacturing industries currently possessed by Shenzhen."


Regulations Amendment Disturbance in Hong Kong

Last year, Hong Kong experienced the "Regulations Amendment Disturbance." Outsiders worry that political and economic factors may cause some resistance to the integration of Hong Kong with other cities in the Greater Bay Area.


In this regard, Carrie Lam said: "In recent years, there has been a trend in Hong Kong that overemphasizes local culture, and there are some people who exclude the mainland and people from the mainland, but I think these are a small number of people. 

But these small people often act It has been expanded through social media or reports, so the mainland people are a little uncomfortable, that is why everyone is in the same country, and he will be treated impolitely when he comes to (Hong Kong) to travel."


But she believes that this situation can be reversed slowly through time. "Of course, the main job is here in Hong Kong. We need to stabilize the situation, and then through public education and school education, let our younger generation have a better grasp of'one country, two systems' and know more about what is best for their own development."


In the interview, Carrie Lam also laughed at herself: “Every time I go to Shenzhen, the leaders of Shenzhen care about me and even sympathize with me. 

Because it is said that you can do things by doing things, and in Hong Kong, Only with the spirit of facing up to difficulties and overcoming all difficulties can one thing be accomplished."


At the end of the interview, Carrie Lam mentioned the 2020 Policy Address. She said that Hong Kong has experienced more than half a year of the epidemic, which has severely hit all walks of life. Hong Kong's economy is expected to shrink by 6% to 8% this year, so the first thing to restore is confidence in Hong Kong's economic prospects.

Carrie Lam announced the postponement of the latest Policy Address

The recovery of Hong Kong's economy is inseparable from integration with the Mainland. 

"We must be backed by the policy support of the central government. As mentioned earlier, personnel exchanges and commercial activities between the two places can be resumed. Then the probability of our economic recovery is high. So in this regard, I am also fighting for the central government. It is also hoped that Hong Kong society will take advantage of this time to enhance some of its abilities, especially its ability to adapt after the epidemic."


It is worth mentioning that Carrie Lam announced on the 12th that it would postpone the latest "policy address" originally scheduled to be published in the Legislative Council of the SAR on October 14.


When meeting with the media on the same day, Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor said that the postponement of the "policy address" was because after a serious epidemic, everyone looked forward to Hong Kong's economic difficulties. 

Armed with this belief, I had already dealt with a series of measures and asked the central government for consideration and support. 

As these measures involve a very wide range, she will go to Beijing to participate in a coordination meeting of ministries and commissions in late October to determine whether relevant policies and projects can be supported.


She said that if this year’s policy address can include the central government’s support for Hong Kong’s development, it will be very helpful for Hong Kong citizens to restore confidence in the economy and inject new impetus into business activities. 

Therefore, she decided to postpone the release of the Policy Address. Announced before the end of November.


In 2018, Shenzhen's GDP exceeded Hong Kong for the first time. According to statistics released by the Census and Statistics Department of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government in February last year, Hong Kong achieved a GDP of 2,845,317 million Hong Kong dollars in 2018, equivalent to approximately RMB 2,400,098 million.

 According to official data released by Shenzhen, Shenzhen's GDP in 2018 was 2422.198 billion yuan. As a result, the total GDP of Shenzhen surpassed Hong Kong for the first time.


What is the value of Shenzhen's gross production?

In 2019, Shenzhen's gross production value was 2692.709 billion yuan. According to the pre-estimated data released by the Census and Statistics Department of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government in February this year, due to weak internal and external demand, Hong Kong’s GDP in the fourth quarter of 2019 fell by 2.9% year-on-year in real terms, and its annual GDP fell 1.2% in real terms. This is the first time the Hong Kong economy has experienced annual negative growth since 2009.


High-level central government’s birthday celebration in Shenzhen at least implies these four specials

On the 40th anniversary celebration of the establishment of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone was to be held in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province on the morning of the 14th. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission will attend the conference and deliver important speeches.


At that time, China Central Radio and Television Station and Xinhuanet will broadcast live broadcasts of the conference. Central key news websites such as People's Daily Online, CCTV, and China Net will be synchronized with new media platforms such as People's Daily, Xinhua News Agency, and CCTV News. broadcast.


A short report of 148 words, including electric heads and punctuation marks, immediately stirred up a festive heat wave in Shenzhen on the coast of the South China Sea.


The general secretary is really coming. A country holds a birthday party for a city.

People in Shenzhen have been looking forward to and discussing the topic for more than half a year, and finally have a clear "statement". It is not an exaggeration to describe the reaction of Shenzhen residents with a rushing report.


Although the news from Xinhua News Agency is short, the amount of information contained in it is extremely rich. As media people, we are also thinking about a question as we read the report: 

Why does the central government have such a high standard to celebrate Shenzhen’s birthday? 

What does it mean to say? 

The four specials are worthy of careful consideration.


Special arrangement

Use the words "Anniversary Celebration Meeting" as the theme of the event; release news to the whole country in advance; the top leaders of the party and the country attended and delivered important speeches; the main central media broadcasted live to the whole country.


Anyone who understands our country’s national conditions and politics understands that if these elements are brought together at the same time, it often means national standards, national events, that is, arrangements of the highest standards. 

Such arrangements are usually seen in major party and state celebrations and important events such as the 10th anniversary of the founding of the party and the founding of the country and the anniversary of the victory of the War of Resistance against Japan, or important celebrations and commemorative events related to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan organized by our country, and related important foreign affairs activities.

 It is rare to see such an arrangement for every tenth celebration in a region or a city in China. Even at the 20th and 30th anniversary of the establishment of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, these elements did not appear at the same time. It cannot be said that the 40th anniversary celebration of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone is indeed a special arrangement.


Special Economic Zone of Shenzhen Anniversary

On the day before the announcement of the foregoing announcement, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Implementation Plan for the Pilot Comprehensive Reform of Building a Pilot Demonstration Zone of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in Shenzhen (2020-2025)".


At the same time, the main central media’s coverage of Shenzhen has heated up again recently. Xinhua News Agency's "Looking" magazine and CCTV's well-known column "Dialogue" recently launched an exclusive interview with Shenzhen Party Secretary Wang Weizhong. 

CCTV's "News Broadcast" broadcast a nearly 6-minute report on the evening of the 11th, introducing Shenzhen's first demonstration and high-quality The development of new heights can be regarded as an integral part of the "special arrangement".


Special Love

The party and the country celebrated the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in such a high-level manner. It is needless to say that this reflects the special concern and love of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as its core, and its special recognition of Shenzhen's development achievements.


In December 2012, General Secretary Xi Jinping praised "Shenzhen is the earliest special economic zone in our country, and also the most influential and best-built special economic zone."


If the reform and opening up is a magnificent epic written by the Chinese people under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, then the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone is undoubtedly the beginning and important opening of this epic, and it is even more of a colorful chapter of this epic.


Looking at the whole country and even the world, Shenzhen is indeed an extraordinary city. It is an ultra-large-scale modern and innovative city created by the Communist Party of China and built from scratch. It was built by 1.4 billion Chinese people and generations of special zone builders in just 40 years from a farmland and wilderness. 

Not only It is a city, but also a road. Such a human miracle should not be in Chinese history. It is also unique in the history of urban development in the world.


Forty years of magnificent waves, the Shenzhen miracle is the brilliant masterpiece of the Chinese Communist Party, the most powerful proof of the vitality of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the most vivid embodiment of the "four self-confidence."


Shenzhen has gained recognition with its strength and performance, and repaid the care and love of the Party Central Committee and the support and help of the whole country with its contributions.


Special announcement

The central government solemnly celebrated the 40th anniversary of the establishment of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. On the one hand, it would like to congratulate and affirm Shenzhen’s 40 years of brilliant achievements; on the other hand, it would use Shenzhen, a window of reform and opening up, and a “landmark city” on this occasion.

 To make a number of important directional announcements at home and abroad. Through the development and achievements of Shenzhen, we can declare the significant institutional advantages and high-strength governance capabilities of the party and the country.

 Declare the vigor and vitality of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the Chinese road. Declare that we are not afraid of clouds and blinding our eyes, and continue to be firm. The determination to deepen reforms, expand opening up, and cooperate with the world for development.


After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2012, General Secretary Xi Jinping came to Shenzhen as the first stop of his inspection tour from Beijing, sending a strong signal to China and abroad that "reform will not stop and opening up will not stop".

 In 2018, on the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up, the general secretary visited Shenzhen again. He said: "I come to Shenzhen again and Guangdong again. We are here to declare to the world that China's reform and opening up will never stop!"


At this moment, people who are concerned about China's development and the future of Shenzhen are looking forward to the celebration on the 14th, looking forward to the important speech of the general secretary on the day of the celebration, and looking forward to China's new signal to the world.


Special expectation

The high standard of the central government is the "birthday" of Shenzhen at the age of 40. It also contains special expectations for Shenzhen. It is hoped that Shenzhen will be the first to demonstrate on the new journey of building a socialist modern country and continue to make due contributions to the overall development of the country. contribution.


40 years ago, when the central government decided to establish the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, Comrade Deng Xiaoping hoped that Shenzhen would "break a bloody road", break through the shackles of the planned economy and traditional rigid systems and mechanisms, and pave the way for reform and opening up. It should be said that Shenzhen lives up to expectations.

Today, after 40 years of development, my country's modernization drive is about to enter a new stage, that is, after completing the task of a comprehensive well-off this year, starting next year, we will embark on a new journey of comprehensively building a modern socialist country. 

This is the intersection of the two centennials we often talk about.


What role should Shenzhen play and what contribution should Shenzhen make in the process of moving towards the next century goal?

 In fact, the central government has special expectations. 

This expectation is to hope that Shenzhen will become a pioneering demonstration zone for socialism with Chinese characteristics, 15 years ahead of the country, that is, before and after 2035, it will become a visible, tangible, replicable, and popular socialist modern power.

The city model should not only compare shoulder to shoulder or even surpass the world-class benchmark cities, and become a "city ambassador" for the world to understand, perceive, and accept Chinese systems, Chinese roads, and Chinese culture.


Carrying this special expectation is certainly honorable, but more means mission and responsibility, higher development requirements, greater pressure and heavier burden.


From the first trial to the first demonstration, the mission continues, the same line, advances with the times, and hopes higher.

 For Shenzhen, in the face of the care and love of the Party Central Committee and the help and support of the people across the country, the best way to be grateful and repay is to continue to work hard and repay special love and special expectations with special deeds and special achievements. Let Shenzhen’s future development transcripts match the country’s standards for celebrating its 40th birthday.



India's cryptocurrency ban was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

March 4, 2020 is a historic day for the Indian crypto community. On this day, the Supreme Court of India finally made a ruling on the cryptocurrency ban against the central bank of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The court ruled that the Reserve Bank of India circular on April 6, 2018 (prohibiting financial institutions from providing banking services to cryptocurrency companies) violated the Constitution.


Supreme Court ruling: a big victory for the Indian crypto community

On Wednesday, the Supreme Court of India finally ruled on the bank ban imposed by the Reserve Bank of India. The Indian news platform Crypto Kanoon reported from the court: "The trial day has finally arrived." At 10:45 am India time, Crypto Kanoon tweeted:


Has Supreme court of India lifted RBI's ban on Cryptocurrency?

Heavyweight: The Supreme Court of India lifted the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) bank ban on cryptocurrencies. The court held that the Circular of the Reserve Bank of India dated April 6, 2018 violated the Constitution.


Since the Supreme Court of India decided to hear the case for the first time, the court finally concluded its debate against the Reserve Bank of India ban on January 28. 

The court heard the arguments of Ashim Sood, lawyer of the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), Nakul Dewan, a lawyer representing several cryptocurrency exchanges, and Shyam Divan, a lawyer of the Central Bank of India.


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued a notice in April 2018 prohibiting regulated financial institutions from providing services to cryptocurrency businesses. 

The ban took effect three months later, and banks subsequently closed accounts on cryptocurrency exchanges, forcing some of them to close, including Zebpay, Coindelta and Koinex.


India's cryptocurrency regulatory framework

The cryptocurrency community around the world has been eagerly looking forward to seeing how India will handle its cryptocurrency policy. 

Since February last year, the Indian government has been drafting a draft bill aimed at explicitly banning cryptocurrencies other than those issued by the state. 

Previously and Now on Indian Cryptocurrency Laws

An Indian Inter-Ministerial Committee (IMC) drafted the "Prohibition of Cryptocurrencies and Official Digital Currency Regulations 2019" whose task is to study all aspects of cryptocurrencies and provide recommendations for India's crypto policy. IMC is led by Subhash Chandra Garg, the former Minister of Finance of India, who has since resigned from that position. Despite this, he still believes that the "future of cryptocurrencies is short" and that they are "intrinsically worthless codes."


What does Indian law stipulates on digital currency by the RBI?

The bill also stipulates that the Reserve Bank of India can issue central bank digital currencies. Last December, Governor of the Bank of India Shaktikanta Das revealed that the Reserve Bank of India is already studying this area.

 He said: "When technology is developed with sufficient guarantees, I think the Reserve Bank will definitely consider this area seriously in due course."


Last February, Indian Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman received a draft encryption bill from IMC, but has not yet made a decision on it. The bill was originally scheduled to be introduced at the end of last year.


The bill was expected to be introduced in Parliament last winter, but it was not passed, and the government has remained silent since. 

The crypto community believes that the bill is flawed and has been seeking the government to re-evaluate the IMC recommendations. At the same time, the Reserve Bank of India and the Indian government have repeatedly confirmed that India has not banned the use of cryptocurrencies.


Is India's crypto industry booming?

Even with restrictions from banks, the Indian crypto community has found a way to continue buying, selling and trading cryptocurrencies. In order to continue to provide INR access to its users, many cryptocurrency exchanges have launched P2P transactions.


Several exchange service providers have recently issued announcements about their services. For example, the UK-based banking platform Cashaa has been expanding its operations in India and now offers free deposits and withdrawals. 

The company also plans to conduct a roadshow this month to prepare Indian cryptocurrency users for the next bull market. The global exchange Binance and the popular Indian exchange Wazirx joined forces, and the latter launched India's first IEO project.


In addition, Zebpay, once one of India's largest cryptocurrency exchanges, restarted on Monday before the Supreme Court’s decision. Earlier, shortly after the RBI 2018 ban took effect, the exchange closed its Indian business in September.


Indian Prime Minister Modi's abolition of the unconstitutionality of the old currency

On November 8, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi suddenly announced that the old currency with face value of 500 and 1,000 rupee would be stopped immediately. Except for some emergency use in hospitals and road traffic, the old currency originally held by the public , Allowing each person to exchange 4,000 rupees in the new currency at bank outlets every day, that is, each person is allowed to exchange 400 yuan for urgent needs in life. Other large amounts of currency can only be deposited in banks. 

However, the administrative decree stipulates that when a large amount of currency is deposited in a bank, sufficient evidence must be provided to prove that the currency held is legal, otherwise the government has the right to treat these as these If the currency is black gold or a corrupt transaction, it will be confiscated or a 40% income tax will be imposed. While promulgating this administrative decree, Prime Minister Modi explained to the people of the whole country that his purpose is to curb rampant black gold trading and extremely serious corruption. 

For more than ten days since the decree was promulgated, each bank branch has been lined up with a long dragon of one kilometer or two kilometers for currency exchange. 

Legality of Demonetization or its Constitutional validity

Trade issues and life order have been greatly disrupted throughout the country, and many trades have almost stagnated. However, only a small amount of currency is exchanged by the people, and it is simply difficult to meet the urgent needs of life. In particular, the supply of new currency issued by the government cannot keep up. 

In some places, only 2,000 rupees a day can be exchanged. This has also led to varying degrees of violence throughout the country. According to incomplete statistics, it has been there are nearly 47 people who caused *** or related deaths due to direct or other indirect inducements.


If it is just social order, if it is only convenience of life, it may be short-lived, but as far as this law is concerned, the reason for the great public outrage is that many people in society have obtained wealth for a long time or decades. 

It is stored in cash, because about half of the people in India do not have an identity certificate or do not have an identity certificate, and two-thirds of the people have not opened a bank account, and most of them save by holding cash. In this way, after this decree takes effect, it means that the large amount of currency held by these innocent people cannot prove its legitimacy, which leads to property damage. 

For a large number of small trade enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises, cash transactions are also the mainstay. 

In this way, the whole country means that a large number of people’s property will be degraded or disappeared because of this law.


We now look at this incident from a legal perspective. In a civilized society or a modern society ruled by law, the legal property of innocent people is caused by a decree of the government, and there should be legal remedies.

 On the day of the promulgation of the decree on November 8,  Indian media, academics and experts that this decree must be unconstitutional. I also believe that Indian lawyers will definitely file public interest lawsuits and declare or declare through judicial review. 

The decree that made Modi’s government was unconstitutional. Sure enough, within these ten days, nearly seven or eight lawyers across the country filed suits in the local high courts, requesting the high courts to declare this law of the Modi government unconstitutional. So far, this case is still under review. 

In the end, whether this provision of the Modi government is unconstitutional or not, some people personally think it is unconstitutional. 

First of all, under a social and constitutional structure like India, is an independent judiciary sufficient to deal with or to relieve the losses of these people? 

India's constitutional government It belongs to modern constitutional government, and it is also the separation of three powers, but compared with the United States or other democratic constitutional countries, the judicial power of India is more authoritative and independent. 

Historically, it has been effective for the election of the prime minister, and the unconstitutional review of some laws and regulations issued by the government

 Over the past two hundred years, or after the establishment of the new government, that is, more than 50 years after the promulgation of the new constitution. Over the past year, more than 1,000 unconstitutional review judgments have been made. I personally believe that under the Indian constitutional framework, due to its judicial independence and authority, it is sufficient to relieve or defend the people's rights to property losses caused by this decree. After suing this decree to the high court, the current high level 

The judges of the court and the Supreme Court have put forward their own views on this. They believe that the Modi government is out of consideration for public interests. This policy of the Modi government is for the better development of the national economy. Therefore, a large part of the public and Jurists believe that this decree is not unconstitutional. But few think this understanding is against the spirit of the modern rule of law. Few People don't deny that even if Modi is to curb black gold and corrupt transactions, even if Modi is for the better development of the country's economy, as long as this law violates the principles of the constitution. 

Violation of the principles of human rights and the rule of law will lead to invalidity and unconstitutionality. We must not harm the legitimate rights and interests of individuals or a few people for the interests of the country or the majority. The reason for the existence of constitutional review under the constitutional framework and the need for an independent Constitutional Court (Supreme Court) is to eliminate the majority. 

The result of the voting, or such damages the legitimate rights and interests of the minority for the benefit of the majority. As far as this incident is concerned, it must have harmed the legitimate rights and interests of a few people. I believe that at least in terms of procedures and entities, six points are unconstitutional. 

According to the principle of constitutional review, if one of these six points is violated, it will be Result in invalid:

1. This law violates the principle of trust protection

 When the old currency is in circulation, the public has a basic common sense judgment on it, that is, in an era of peace, the government cannot suddenly abolish some currencies in circulation, and the principle of trust protection also requires any modern government. 

The punishment of the incident or the extent of law enforcement should be connected to a certain extent, or the scale for the public will not suddenly become higher or lower. 

In India, in the past few decades, the government considered large amounts of cash transactions or holding large amounts of cash to the people to be legal, but suddenly the government required the people to prove the legality of holding cash, which meant that the government suddenly tightened the standards of law enforcement, which violated the principle of trust protection in the administrative law. 

That is to say, the government made the public always believe that the previous actions of the government were carried out on such a scale, but suddenly the scale happened. Change also violates the constitutional principle of trust protection and is unconstitutional.


2. This decree violates the principle of legal reservation

 The Modi government issued this decree through the Ministry of Economic Affairs under the Ministry of Finance. The modern rule of law country restricts the lives, health and property rights of citizens or people, and must pass the Congress. Laws, rather than administrative orders or administrative regulations, can be used to degrade people’s property or restrict people’s personal freedom. Of course, there are also individual countries that allow Congress to authorize the government to make corresponding regulations. But countries in the modern sense basically do not allow administrative agencies to make such regulations, stop the circulation of these currencies for so long, or require the public to provide sufficient evidence to prove that they originally hold the legality of currency, this regulation directly relates to the derogation of people’s property, whether it is from the legal principle or the rules of modern legislation, it should belong to the scope of Congress legislation, and it can never belong to government agencies or administrative regulations. 

Regulations, so at this point, some people think that the Ministry of Finance of the Modi government, or not to mention the Ministry of Economic Affairs under the Ministry of Finance, even the Ministry of Finance, and even Modi’s cabinet, have no right to make such a property of the people. The derogated administrative regulations, this administrative regulation will also be invalid.


3. This law violates the principle of non-retroactivity of the law

Because this law stipulates that the currency held by the people before the promulgation of this law may lead to violations of the law, or it stipulates that the people must prove whether the behavior before the promulgation of the law is legal and prove the source of funds, which means that this law is retroactive. 

In the past, the government today issued a decree to allow people to prove whether the behavior before the decree is legal or not, which violates the principle of non-retroactivity of the law.


4. The decree intends to allow people to prove themselves guilty. The ordinary people have accumulated a large amount of legal currency and property in decades. 

The government now wants the ordinary people to prove the legality of these holdings. This is similar to self-incrimination, because in addition to the existing restrictive provisions of the law, such as it is said that public servants have the obligation to prove the legal source of their property, otherwise the government has the right to cancel the amount of the crime of unknown origin. However, the Modi government's actions today require ordinary people to prove the legal source of their property, that is, self-incrimination.

 If the people cannot prove, the government or administrative agency has the right to impose income tax or directly confiscate it. Presumption of guilt.

 In a modern civilized society, there is no presumption of guilt, and people must not be allowed to prove themselves guilty, unless government agencies produce enough evidence to prove that the currency held by these people, the people, and even the most powerful and powerful officials is illegal, nor can it be presumed, confiscation or heavy taxation.


5. The decree violated the principle of necessity

 Judging from the principle of necessity, the Modi government has repeatedly declared to the media and society that the reason for this policy is to curb black gold trading and corruption. But we know that in any modern society, if the government wants to curb such behavior, it is nothing more than taking measures such as system construction and increasing supervision, but never a country or a legal person thinks that curbing black gold transactions or corruption is related to currency circulation.

 In a certain sense, currency is just a trading tool. A society without currency can still produce a lot of black gold transactions and corruption with gold bullion and gold bars. Therefore, this statement of the Modi government is actually very funny and violates Basically logical. 

You can't confiscate all gold because of curbing black gold trading and corruption. This is one aspect. On the other hand, the logical deduction of this statement itself is even more absurd. You confiscated and abolished the old currency of 500 face value, and introduced a new currency of 2000 face value. This means that if you say that large currencies will lead to black gold transactions and The emergence of corruption, a new currency that is four times larger also means that the black gold transaction and the emergence of corruption have been accelerated four times, so Modi’s reason is obviously contrary to the basic logic. 

In addition, we look at the entire Indian society, whether it is black gold trading or corruption, in the lives of the people, the use rate of cash in small and medium-sized enterprises and commercial trade, its proportion is very small, perhaps only a percentage. 

Five or ten percent, but you can't kill the remaining convenient use of cash and cash transactions in order to curb these five or ten percent imaginary black gold transactions and corruption. So from the first point of view, it violates the principle of necessity, that is, this administrative regulation is not necessary in the legal sense.


6. The law violates the principle of proportionality. The so-called principle of proportionality is the promulgation of any administrative decision or regulation. 

The purpose you are pursuing must have a reasonable ratio to the social cost caused. It cannot be used to pursue those uncertain or small administrative purposes or governance purposes. And it hurts a large proportion of social costs. 

We have made life judgments and economic judgments from what the Modi government has explained to the society. I think that in order to curb black gold trading and corruption, such a legislative or administrative purpose has caused damage to the interests of the entire society and the people, or the entire social order. Destruction completely violates the principle of proportionality.


In summary, no matter which of the above six points is violated, it will lead to the unconstitutionality of the entire administrative law and regulations. As far as the entire incident is concerned, I personally think that the purpose of the Modi government's actions is not to curb black gold transactions as claimed by the outside world. Or to curb corruption, the purpose is more likely to promote the devaluation of the entire country's currency through the issuance of a large denomination currency with a face value of 2,000 yuan, thereby driving the growth of the entire economy. We know that in today's modern countries, big countries and big countries are in the process of international trade, the financial war is the most rigorous. 

The devaluation of any country's currency will cause the loss of other countries' economic interests, and it will also cause devaluation in international trade. 

The country has the upper hand, which is why Trump repeatedly raised the issue of the strength of the Chinese government's currency devaluation during the campaign. Modi is a very intelligent politician. He wants to smoothly enhance the country's economic competitiveness by issuing a 2,000 yuan face value currency by means of secret storage or shifting the focus, but it is only to curb black gold and corruption. 

As an excuse to quell the social turmoil caused by the inflation caused by currency devaluation, and the derivative resistance and demonstrations against the government. 

In the second aspect, the Modi government is likely to want to promote the financial progress of the entire country, because nearly half of the people in the entire Indian society do not have an ID card, and most of the people do not have bank accounts, and the act of requiring currency to be deposited in the bank will cause the public to open a large number of bank accounts or use Internet financial tools in a short period of time. This is likely to bring about the reform of the national financial system and the control of society. Great promotion.


In any case, in the Indian society, between the opposition party and the ruling party, such a democratic constitutional society of oppositional structure and party rotation, in terms of this event, what kind of social unrest will be triggered, or the whole It remains to be seen in which direction the political struggle will lead. But in general, judging from the legal point of view, this behavior must be unconstitutional, and it must be inconsistent with Indian society's basic pursuit of a modern society under the rule of law.





Special Bizarre Acts and Laws of India

1. The Indian Motor Vehicle Act of 1914 and Andhra Pradesh’s laws stipulate that to become a motor vehicle inspector in Andhra Pradesh, one must have clean teeth. As for people with skeletal deformities such as horoscopes, flat feet, or ribs valgus, don't even think about it.


Peculiar Laws and Acts in India


2. The "1934 Indian Aircraft Act" applies to Boeing airliners, and it is agreed to also apply to kites. That's right. According to the law, flying kites in India requires prior permission, because kites are also aircraft and must be approved like airplanes.


3. The 1898 Indian Post Office Act stipulates that only the government has the right to deliver letters from one place to another by post. Therefore, even flying pigeons is a violation of the Act. 

To circumvent the decree, Indian couriers refer to mailed letters as documents.


4. The 1959 Mumbai Prohibition of Begging Act (which has been adopted by many states, and Delhi adopted the Act in June 1960) stipulates that begging is prohibited. 

Beggars can be arrested without approval, sentenced without trial, or sent to shelters.


5. The Supreme Court of India stipulated that it is not allowed to arrest women during the period from sunset to sunrise. This is to prevent women from being harassed during this period. The police can only make an exception if they have obtained a written document explaining why women must be arrested during that time period.


6. According to the 1875 Indian Legal Age Act, women can get married at the age of 18, and men must wait until they are 21. But the bill allows men to __________ when they reach 18 years of age. This has caused the strange phenomenon of unmarried fathers.


7.  According to the 1911 Seditious Party Prevention Act, no more than 10 couples are allowed to dance on the dance floor at the same time.


8. According to Article 294(a) of the Indian Penal Code of 1860, if a person makes an "obscene act" in public and causes others to "discomfort or uncomfortable annoyance", he will face jail and or fine. But the code does not specifically explain what is "obscene or indecent behavior" and what is "discomfort or uncomfortable annoyance".

In addition, Article 309 of the law stipulates that _____ is legal, but the attempt to _____ is illegal, um.. That is to say, if the_____ succeeds, then you die ,_____Fail, you will go to jail. Also according to the Code, Part 497, a man who commits adultery with a married woman will be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison, while women are not applicable to the crime of adultery, so women in the crime of adultery will not be punished. (previously)


9. According to the "Indian Sarais Act, 1867" ("sarai" refers to those buildings or parts of buildings used for travelers to live or shelter, and can be regarded as "hotels"), anyone can request at any time Any hotel or hotel provides free drinking water for its or its pets, and can also use the restroom for free, without stopping.

According to this Act, if a guest in a hotel becomes ill, the owner of the hotel must report to the nearest police station. In addition, the bill also stipulates that hotel owners must remove poisonous plants near the hotel and other trees or vegetation that may be used by thieves to enter and leave the hotel.


10. According to the "Factory Act 1948", if you go to a factory, remember to spit the sputum into the spittoon, otherwise you will be fined up to 5 rupees.

 In addition, the factory owner must paint the wall white (color is not allowed), store the reference water in a clay pot (not other drinking fountains or purifier equipment), and put the sand in a red basket (used for fire fighting, not placed Fire extinguisher), the electricity must be calculated by horsepower (not kilowatts).

11.  According to the "1878 Buried Objects Act", if a person accidentally discovers a buried object worth more than 10 rupees (maybe 11 rupees in that era were considered treasures) and did not report it to the tax department, they would face jail. Disaster.


12. According to the "Bangladesh Bonded Warehouse Association Act 1838," property in a certain area of ​​Kolkata can only be sold to the East India Company, but the East India Company ceased to exist more than 160 years ago.


13.  According to the "Police Act 1861", the police must take off their hats and salute members of the British royal family. The problem is that these British royals no longer exist in India.


14. According to the 1949 East Punjab Agricultural Pests, Diseases and Poisonous Weeds Act, in Delhi, if a locust plague occurs, men over the age of 14 may be ordered to go to the streets to deworm them at any time. 

The government will use drums to summon people to go to the streets to drive insects, and if you ignore the drum calls, you will face a fine of 50 rupees or imprisonment for 10 days.


15. There used to be ordinances (such as the "1916 Punjab Prison Handbook", which is applicable in Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh) prohibiting the wearing of the "Gandhi hat" (a kind of political symbol) in prisons. White cap) and black turban.



The bridge commentary: India's current legal system is not only deeply influenced by the legislation of the British colonial period, but also widely integrated with the content of Indian religious law.

 It is a common law or case law system with Indian characteristics. To a certain extent, the existence of these complicated and peculiar legal systems also has a certain restrictive effect on economic development. In addition to launching "Clean India", "Digital India", "Smart City" and "Made in India", the Modi government also hopes that Indian laws and regulations can be streamlined.

An unprecedented scale elimination of laws and regulations led by the Minister of Regulations of India is underway. We hope that those absurd and outdated laws and regulations will be eliminated, legislation will be streamlined, and efficiency will be improved, thereby benefiting investors in India.


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