April 2020


The International Telecommunication Union, ITU of the United Nations

The International Telecommunication Union is an important specialized agency of the United Nations and the longest-running international organization among United Nations agencies. It is also Referable as ITU.

ITU is the United Nations agency in charge of information and communication technology affairs. 

It is responsible for allocating and managing global radio spectrum and satellite orbit resources, formulating global telecommunications standards, providing telecommunications assistance to developing countries, and promoting the development of global telecommunications.

As the link between governments and the private sector worldwide, ITU, through its radio communications, standardization and development of telecommunications exhibition activities, is also the host organization of the World Summit on the Information Society.

ITU is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and its members include 193 member states and more than 700 sector members and associate members and academic members. Every May 17th is World Telecommunication Day.

On October 23, 2014, Houlin Zhao was elected as the new Secretary General of the International Telecommunication Union, becoming the first Chinese national secretary in the International Telecommunication Union's 150-year history. 
He officially took office on January 1, 2015 for a four-year term.


International Organization Name:    International Telecommunication Union

Category:    International organizations 

Location:    Geneva, Switzerland

Established:    May 17, 1865

Number of member states:    193

Abbreviated as:    ITU


    Introduction of International Telecommunication Union, ITU


    The history of ITU (International Telecommunication Union) can be traced back to 1865. 

    In order to successfully realize international telegraph communication, on May 17, 1865, representatives of 20 European countries including France, Germany, Russia, Italy and Austria signed the "International Telegraph Convention" in Paris, and the International Telegraph Union (ITU) also announced Established.

    With the application and development of telephone and radio, ITU's authority has been continuously expanded. In 1906, representatives of 27 countries including Germany, Britain, France, the United States, and Japan signed the International Radio Telegraph Convention in Berlin.

    In 1932, representatives of more than 70 countries convened a meeting in Madrid, Spain, to merge the International Telegraph Convention and the International Radio Telegraph Convention, to formulate the International Telecommunication Convention, and decided to officially rename it as of January 1, 1934. 
    "International Telecommunication Union" (International Telecommunication Union). 

    With the consent of the United Nations, the International Telecommunication Union became a specialized agency of the United Nations on October 15, 1947, and its headquarters was moved to Geneva from Bern, Switzerland.

    ITU is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations, but it is not legally a subsidiary agency of the United Nations. 
    Its resolutions and activities do not require approval by the United Nations, but a work report is submitted to the United Nations every year.

    What are the divisions of International Telecommunication Union?

    The organization structure of ITU is mainly divided into telecommunication standardization department (ITU-T), radio communication department (ITU-R) and telecommunication development department (ITU-D). 

    The ITU convenes the Council once a year, the Plenipotentiary Conference, the World Telecommunication Standards Conference and the World Telecommunication Development Conference every 4 years, and the World Radiocommunication Conference every 2 years.

    Brief introduction of the research groups and main research directions of ITU-T, ITU-R and ITU-D

    (1) Telecommunication Standardization Department (ITU-T)

    There are currently 10 research groups in the main activities of the telecommunications standardization sector.
    SG2: Operational issues of service provision and telecommunications management
    SG3: Tariff and settlement principles including related telecommunication economic and policy issues
    SG5: Environment and climate change
    SG9: TV and sound transmission and integrated broadband cable network
    SG11: signaling requirements, protocols and test specifications;
    SG12: performance, quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE)
    SG13: Future networks including mobile and next-generation networks (NGN)
    SG15: Optical transmission network and access network infrastructure
    SG16: Multimedia coding, systems and applications
    SG17: Security

    (2) Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)

    There are currently six research groups in the main activities of the radiocommunication sector.
    SG1: Spectrum management
    SG3: radio wave propagation
    SG4: Satellite business
    SG5: ground service
    SG6: Broadcast service
    SG7: Science business

    (3) Telecommunication Development Department (ITU-D)

    The Telecommunication Development Department is formed by the merger of the original Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) and the Telecommunication Development Center (CDT). 

    Its responsibility is to encourage developing countries to:

    • Participate in the research work of the Union
    • Organize technical seminars to make developing countries Understand the work of the Union and apply the research results of the Union as soon as possible
    • encourage international cooperation and provide technical assistance to developing countries
    • Build and improve communication networks in developing countries.


    At present, ITU-D has established two study groups.

    SG1: Research on telecommunication development policies and strategies
    SG2: Development and management of telecommunication services, networks and ICT applications

    Mission

    What is the Purpose of International Telecommunication Union?

    The purpose of ITU, according to its "Basic Law", can be defined as follows: 
    1. Maintain and develop international cooperation to promote the research and development and rational use of various telecommunications services.
    2. Promote the update and the most effective use of telecommunications facilities to improve the telecommunications Efficiency, increase utilization rate and achieve popularization and universalization as much as possible.
    3. Coordinate the work of various countries to achieve a common purpose. 
    These tasks can be divided into three parts:

    1. Telecommunications standardization
    2. Radio communication specifications 
    3. Telecommunications development


    The permanent functional departments of each part are "Bureau", which includes the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB), Wireless Communications Bureau (RB) and Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT).

    What is the mission of ITU?

    Objectives of International Telecommunication Union: ITU’s mission is to enable the growth and sustainable development of telecommunications and information networks, and to promote universal access so that people around the world can participate in and benefit from the global information economy and society. 

    The ability to communicate freely is an indispensable prerequisite for building a fairer, prosperous and peaceful world.
    To make this vision a reality, ITU helps mobilize the necessary technical, financial and human resources.


    Major Task of ITU

    One of the major tasks facing us is to build the information and communication infrastructure, vigorously promote capacity building and strengthen cybersecurity to increase people’s confidence in using cyberspace and bridge the so-called digital divide.

    Achieving cyber security and cyber peace are the issues that people are most concerned about in the information age, and ITU is taking practical measures through its landmark global cyber security agenda.

    ITU also strives to strengthen emergency communications for disaster prevention and mitigation. 
    Although both developing and developed countries are threatened by natural disasters, poorer countries are often the hardest hit because of their weak economic capabilities and lack of resources.

    Logo and Seal of International Telecommunication Union, ITU

    Whether through the establishment of standards for creating infrastructure to provide telecommunications services on a global scale, or through fair management of the radio spectrum and satellite orbits to promote wireless services to every corner of the world, or through efforts to develop telecommunications countries with development strategies provide support. Also, all the work carried out by ITU revolves around the goal of providing all people with easy access to information and communication services at affordable prices, thus contributing to the economic and social development of all mankind Significant contribution.
    ITU will, as always, strive to connect the world.

    Membership of The International Telecommunication Union

    ITU not only recruits governments as member states, but also private operators such as operators, equipment manufacturers, financing institutions, R & D institutions, and international and regional telecommunication organizations.

    With the increasing role of telecommunications in the overall promotion of global economic activities, joining ITU enables governments and private institutions to play an active role in this institution with more than 140 years of experience in the construction of world telecommunications networks.

    Joining ITU

    By joining the world's largest, most respected and influential global telecommunications organization, the government and industry can ensure that their opinions are expressed, and effectively and effectively advance the development of the world around us.

    Private companies and other organizations can choose to join one or more of the three ITU departments according to their areas of concern. 

    Whether attending conferences, plenary meetings and technical meetings, or engaging in daily work, members can enjoy unique communication opportunities and a wide range of networking environments. They can discuss issues and form business and cooperative relationships.

    ITU sector members also carry out standard setting work to support future telecommunications systems and the networks and services that will create tomorrow.

    Finally, members of the department have the right to have access to non-public first-hand information that may be extremely valuable for their business plans.

    The main work of International Telecommunication Union

    Managing the international radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources is the core work of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R).

    According to the ITU Constitution, ITU is responsible for allocating and registering spectrum and frequency assignments, as well as satellite orbital positions and other parameters, "to avoid harmful interference from radio stations between different countries." Therefore, the frequency notification, coordination and registration rules and procedures are the basis of the international spectrum management system. 

    The main tasks of ITU-R also include the development of radio communication system standards, ensuring the effective use of the radio frequency spectrum, and conducting relevant radio communications

    Radio communication

    Research on system development. In addition, ITU-R is engaged in research on the development of radio communication systems required for disaster reduction and relief work. The specific content is covered by the work plan of the Radio Communication Study Group. 

    The radio communication services related to disasters include disaster prediction, discovery, early warning and disaster relief. In the case of severe or complete damage to the "wired" communication infrastructure, radio communication services are the most effective means of disaster relief.

    The ITU Radio Regulations and its "Frequency Allocation Table" are regularly revised and updated to meet the huge demand for spectrum. This revision and update work is very important to adapt to the rapid development of existing systems and to meet the spectrum requirements of advanced wireless technologies under development. 

    The ITU World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC), held every three to four years, is at the core of the international spectrum management process and is also the starting point for countries to carry out practical work. 

    The World Radiocommunication Conference reviews and revises the Radio Regulations - an international treaty establishing the framework for the use of radio frequencies and satellite orbits by ITU member states, and considers any worldwide issues that fall within its scope of authority in accordance with the relevant agenda.

    From the implementation of the Radio Regulations to the development of Recommendations and Guidelines on the use of radio systems and spectrum / orbit resources, ITU-R plays a key role in global radio spectrum and satellite orbit management through a wide variety of activities. 

    A large number, rapid growth, and various types of services that rely on radio communications to guarantee the safety of life on land, sea, and air, such as fixed, mobile, broadcast, amateur, space research, meteorology, global positioning system, and environmental monitoring, etc. The demand for these limited natural resources is increasing day by day.

    The radio communications department studies wireless communication technologies and operations, publishes proposals, and also performs the functions of the World Radio Administrative Conference (WARC), CCIR, and Frequency Registration Committee, including: 

    1. The application of radio spectrum in land and space radio communications
    2. Characteristics and performance of radio communication systems
    3. Operation of radio stations; 4. Radio communications in distress and safety.

    Telecom Standard of the International Telecommunication Union

    ITU is renowned for its standards development work. Standard setting is the earliest work that it began. In the most rapidly developing industry in the world, the telecommunications standardization department adheres to the path of continuous development, simplifies working methods, and adopts more flexible collaboration methods to meet the increasingly complex market demands. 

    Experts from industries, public sectors and R & D entities from all over the world meet regularly to jointly develop intricate technical specifications to ensure that various communication systems can seamlessly interoperate with the various network elements that make up today's complex ICT networks and services.

    The cooperation enables the major competitors in the industry to shake hands, focusing on reaching a global consensus on new technologies, ITU


    Telecommunications pertaining to ITU

    T's standards (also known as proposals) are the foundation of contemporary information and communication networks that are the lifeblood of various economic activities. 

    For manufacturers, these standards are a convenient door for them to enter the world market, which is conducive to achieving economies of scale in production and distribution. As they are well aware that systems that comply with ITU-T standards will be used globally, whether it is for telecommunications or likewise.

    The purchasers of giants and multinational companies are also ordinary consumers. 
    These standards can ensure that the equipment they purchase can be easily integrated with other existing systems.

    Looking ahead, one of the main challenges facing the telecommunications standardization sector is the integration of different industry types.

    As traditional telephone services, mobile networks, televisions, and radio broadcasts begin to carry new services, a revolution in communications and information processing has begun.

    Standard procedure

    In the International Organization for Standardization, the project proposal method and project positioning of the proposed standard draft are roughly divided into the following five situations:
    1. The proposal is adopted as part of the revision of an important standard, or several paragraphs

    2. The proposal is adopted and corrected for an important standard

    3. The proposal is adopted as part of the revision of an important standard, and together with several other parts form an important international standard

    4. The proposal is adopted to supplement an important standard

    5. The proposal was adopted as an independent important standard, such as X.85 and X.86. 

    The influence of international standards is very large. 

    Generally, it takes at least two years for an international standard from submitting a manuscript to being approved as a standard, and it needs continuous maintenance and improvement for the next 3-5 years. 

    Approval as an international standard requires the approval of 189 countries and more than 600 industrial organizations and numerous manufacturers. Therefore, the formulation of international standards is a manifestation of comprehensive capabilities involving major innovations, intellectual property rights, markets, and development.

    Development Department of International Telecommunication Union

    The purpose of the establishment of the ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) is to help popularize access to information and communication technologies (ICT) in a fair, sustainable and affordable manner as a means of promoting and deepening social and economic development.

     The World Telecommunication Development Conference (WTDC), held every four years, sets practical priorities to help achieve the above goals.

    The Telecommunication Development Department works with government and industry partners to raise the necessary technology and manpower for the development of ICT networks and services through a series of regional initiatives, global-level activities and multi-target projects that complement the comprehensive national plan. 

    It also exerts to arrange financial resources to connect the unconnected. To this end, they are advancing the development of a global broadband connection that is everywhere, convenient, simple, and affordable, and is promoting the transition to the next generation network (NGN). 

    In order to meet the challenges brought about by the rapid growth of ICT, through a series of tools for policy-making institutions and regulatory agencies, to promote the establishment of a favorable regulatory and business environment, thereby achieving innovation and efficiency in the telecommunications market. 

    They support projects that utilize rural community access to deploy new wireless and mobile technologies, and at the same time provide emergency communications for disaster relief when necessary.

     In addition, they also help to cultivate a work force with ICT knowledge through a number of technical and policy training initiatives carried out globally, paying particular attention to the specific needs of youth, women and persons with disabilities.

    ITU-D plays a role in promoting and promoting ICT development. Through contact with government leaders and international donor agencies, an appropriate balance between public and private investment is sought.

    There is no “one size fits all” strategy for creating digital opportunities. To this end, ITU-D helps member states to elaborate targeted national information and communication strategies, including e-government and distance education strategies. 

    In addition, we strive to help developing countries strengthen cybersecurity and promote the formation of cybersecurity culture to improve the security of cyberspace. 

    ITU-D has also provided reliable statistical data on trends and developments in the ICT field through extensive scripture references, while conducting research group activities on key issues facing governments and industry.

    Exhibition Department of International Telecommunication Union

    The major exhibition events, high-level forums and various other activities organized by the ITU Telecommunications Exhibition Department provide a gathering place for leaders in the information and communication technology (ICT) industry, government ministers and regulators of various countries, and various parties Good opportunity. 

    These content-rich activities provide an interconnected platform for the ICT industry in the world to meet, meet, and know each other, showcase the latest technologies, explore the latest trends, and implement relevant work.

    When the first exhibition event was held in Geneva, Switzerland in 1971, the ITU Telecom Exhibition Department came into being.
    Since then, the ITU Telecom Exhibition Department has accumulated rich experience in organizing large-scale exhibitions in the world.

    The ITU Telecommunications Exhibition Department holds a telecommunications exhibition in a different region of the world every year, and its signage product ITU World Telecommunications Exhibition is held every three years.

     The exhibition is the main content of each exhibition event held by the ITU Telecom Exhibition Department, which attracts the participation of major companies in the ICT industry. Exhibitors showcase the latest products, services and innovations at the exhibition. 

    The content coverage is extremely wide, from broadband or IP-based services to mobile and wireless technologies, next-generation networks, satellites, and even more. 

    The exhibiting companies and the technologies displayed reflect the achievements of the entire industry. 

    The telecommunications village in the exhibition venue is a quiet place in the noisy exhibition hall. The purpose of setting up the village is to demonstrate the industry's production capacity, and the headquarters of each manufacturer can camp here during the entire exhibition.

    The ITU Telecommunications Exhibition Department also provides other services, such as providing a full range of services such as sponsorship and corporate image packaging in order to help companies better participate in the exhibition. 

    At the same time, many social events are held, providing online services and VIP schedules. All these services are to help all participants in the exhibition to understand and connect with each other, and to establish good partnerships during and after the exhibition. 

    The role of the global communications industry ITU has maintained a leading position in the field of information and communications technology. 

    The globally recognized technical standards defined and adopted by it help the industry to achieve seamless communication between people and equipment worldwide.

     ITU has also successfully managed the use of radio spectrum worldwide to ensure that all international wireless communications do not interfere with each other, thereby ensuring the transmission of important information and economic data throughout the world.

    ITU, while promoting the development of global telecommunications, also provides special technical assistance in the areas of development policies, regulatory frameworks and strategies to provide advice and technology transfer, cyber security, management, financing, network installation and maintenance, disaster reduction and capacity building, Promote the deployment of telecommunications in developing countries.

    There is no doubt that the greatest achievement of ITU lies in the crucial role it plays in the creation of the international telecommunications network. 
    This is by far the largest work created by mankind. Today, due to the development of the Internet, mobile wireless phones, convergence strategies and other aspects, we can stay in touch through the network and learn about news and entertainment around the world. 

    The network allows people to enjoy a huge global information inventory and support the development of the global economy. Without the work carried out by ITU, there would be no such thing.

    Relations with China

    China joined the Union in 1920. For the first time in 1932, it sent representatives to participate in the plenipotentiary conference held in Madrid and signed the Madrid International Telecommunication Convention. It was first elected as a member of the Executive Council at the Plenipotentiary Conference held in Atlantic City in 1947. 
    After the founding of the People ’s Republic of China, China’s legal seats in the Union were illegally deprived. In May 1972, the 27th Session of the ITU Administrative Council passed a resolution to restore the country’s legal seats. China has actively participated in ITU meetings and activities.

    As of July 1, 1997, representatives of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government may, as members of the Chinese delegation, participate in the Plenipotentiary Conference and the Executive General Assembly of the Union when they are involved in issues related to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

    Private telecommunications institutions in the administrative region may participate in meetings of the telecommunications standardization department, the radio communications department and the telecommunications development department.

    Since 1999, the relationship between China and the Union has continued to develop:
    The Chinese Ministry of Information Industry and ITU jointly held the third-generation mobile communication task group meeting in Beijing. More than 200 representatives from 31 countries attended the meeting. 
    The meeting mainly discussed the wireless transmission technology standard of the third generation mobile communication.

    On June 14-25, the ITU Council was held in Geneva in 1999, and the Ministry of Information Industry of China sent a delegation to attend. 277 representatives from 46 member countries and 29 observers from 19 non-member countries attended the meeting. 

    This year's Council mainly reviewed and approved the 2000-2001 financial budget of the Union. It discussed the management, functions and institutional reform of the Union, studied and adopted specific methods for cost recovery of satellite network declarations, and reviewed the Union and World Trade Organize the content and solutions of cooperation agreements and other issues.

    Ambassador Qiao Zonghuai of the Chinese delegation in Geneva signed the "ITU-Host Agreement" in Geneva on behalf of the Chinese government and the Secretary-General of the Union. 

    According to the agreement, Asia Telecom 2000 will be held in Hong Kong, China. This is the first regional telecommunications exhibition held by ITU in China.

    ITU Secretary-General Shinohei Neihai came to Beijing to participate in the 22nd Universal Postal Union Conference. Minister of Information Industry Wu Jichuan met with Neihai. 

    The two sides held friendly talks on strengthening future cooperation and other issues. In addition to Beijing's activities, Neihai also visited Xi'an.

    In 2002, China continued to actively participate in the activities of the International Telecommunication Union (hereinafter referred to as "ITU").

    ITU holds the World Telecommunication Development Conference in Turkey. The theme of this conference is "Bridging the Digital Divide". 

    The participating countries conducted extensive and in-depth discussions on how to narrow the digital divide and exchanged their respective experiences in telecommunications development. The Congress finally adopted the Istanbul Declaration and Istanbul Action Plan. 

    Deputy Minister of Information Industry Zhang Chunjiang led a Chinese delegation to attend. At the meeting, Vice Minister Zhang gave a keynote speech entitled "Bridging the Digital Divide is the eternal theme of telecommunications development", introducing the development experience and achievements of China's information industry in the past 20 years.

    The first intergovernmental preparatory meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society was held in Geneva. Ambassador Sha Zukang, representative of China to the UN Office in Geneva, led a delegation to attend the meeting. 

    The meeting discussed and finally passed the rules of procedure of the intergovernmental preparatory meeting, the qualification verification arrangements and participation methods for non-governmental organizations to participate in the meeting, and discussed the summit topics. 

    In his speech, Ambassador Sha pointed out that the current worldwide development of information and communication technology is extremely uneven, and the “digital divide” between developed and developing countries continues to widen. 
    This is an urgent problem to be solved in the construction of an information society.

    The Union holds a plenipotentiary conference in Marrakech, Morocco. A total of 156 member countries, 27 international and regional organizations participated in the meeting. 

    The Minister of Information Industry Wu Jichuan led a Chinese delegation to the meeting. The conference reviewed the strategic, financial and operational planning of the Union for the next four years, revised the relevant provisions of the Constitution and the Convention of the Union, and discussed related issues of the World Summit on the Information Society.

    From December 1st to 4th, the ITU "Asia Telecom 2002" was held in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. This telecom exhibition is co-sponsored by ITU and the Chinese central government and undertaken by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government. It is the second telecom exhibition of its kind in China after the "2000 Asian Telecommunications Exhibition". 

    Minister Wu Jichuan of the Ministry of Information Industry attended the opening ceremony on behalf of the central government and delivered a keynote speech entitled "Taking the Road to a Steady and Pragmatic Telecommunication Development".

    In 2010, Houlin Zhao once again re-elected as the deputy secretary general of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is the highest position held by Chinese people in international telecommunications organizations to date.

    On October 23, 2014, the ITU 2014 Plenipotentiary Conference held the election of the Secretary-General in Busan, South Korea. Chinas recommended ITU Deputy Secretary-General Zhao Houlin Zhao Houlin as the only candidate received 152 votes in the first round of voting. 

    The high vote was elected as the new Secretary-General and became the first Chinese Secretary-General in the International Telecommunication Union's 150-year history. He will officially take office on January 1, 2015 for a four-year term.

    Academic members of International Telecommunication Union

    On January 14, 2011, the 18th Plenipotentiary Conference of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) passed an important resolution: Inviting universities and scientific research units to participate in ITU activities as their academic members. 

    The first batch of five universities and research institutes approved to become academic members of the International Telecommunication Union are: 

    1. Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications
    2. Tsinghua University
    3. Waseda University in Japan
    4. Two universities in Tunisia


    Statistical data

    By the end of 2010, the number of Internet users worldwide had reached 2.08 billion, and the number of mobile phone users had reached 5.28 billion.

    International Telecommunication Union Secretary-General Hamadun Dour told the media on the 26th that in early 2000, the number of mobile phone users worldwide was only 500 million, and the number of Internet users was 250 million. 
    In just 10 years, the number of mobile phone users and netizens has soared, breaking the 5 billion and 2 billion mark respectively.

    The total population of the world exceeds 6.8 billion. This means that almost 1 in 3 people are netizens, and 57% of global netizens come from developing countries.

    1 out of 3 people are netizens

    From the perspective of network access, fixed broadband users worldwide reached 555 million in 2010, while mobile broadband users soared to 940 million.

    Susan Telche, the head of the market information and statistics department of the International Telecommunication Union, said that in terms of the increase in the number of Internet users, the Asia-Pacific region has performed the most eye-catching, Billion.

    Telce said that the high growth in the number of mobile phone users is gradually slowing down, "the double-digit growth rate is nearing completion." 

    While the number of mobile phone users continues to climb, the number of fixed-line phones has been declining year after year. Statistics from the International Telecommunication Union show that the number of fixed telephones has decreased for four consecutive years and has fallen below 1.2 billion.

    Internet IP address runs out

    Similar to the road traffic network, the Internet will also be congested, but unfortunately, the methods such as "sign-shaking" and "number-limiting" to alleviate the pressure on road traffic cannot be applied to Internet communications.

    Since the Internet must allocate exclusive IP addresses to any terminals connected to the network, with the diversification of network terminals, Internet IP address allocation pressure is increasing.

    In modern society, many single netizens not only have desktop computers, but also use mobile terminals such as laptops, tablets, and smart phones to enter the Internet, causing digital congestion. And the end of this congestion is what will happen in a few weeks: all Internet IP addresses are used up. 
    "In the next few weeks, the IP address will be used up," American Google engineer Lorenzo Colletti told AFP reporter on the 22nd, "Sometimes, we are like driving a car against the wall."

    An IP address, or Internet address, is a logical address used to identify an Internet terminal. It is unique and is equivalent to the house number of a home address in life. The existing IP protocol used by the Internet is a 32-bit address called IPv4, with a total capacity of about 4.3 billion.

    The International Internet Name and Number Assignment Company (ICANN), headquartered in the United States, is responsible for global Internet IP address allocation, and functions similarly to the vehicle management office in the highway traffic regulatory department. 

    Rod Beckstrom, president of the "Network Management Office", said that just as the increase in telephone users forced telecom operators to upgrade their phone numbers, the increasing number of Internet terminals has made the expansion of IP addresses an urgent need for Internet development. 
    However, IP address expansion involves a whole system transformation, which is much more complicated than the phone number upgrade.

    The first Chinese national secretary

    According to media reports such as Netease and Zhongsuo, the 19th Plenipotentiary Conference of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) held the election of the next ITU Secretary-General on the 23rd.

    The current ITU Deputy Secretary-General Houlin Zhao was elected as the new Secretary-General. 
    He was the first Chinese national secretary general in ITU history and took office on January 1, 2015 for a four-year term.

    Yonhap pointed out that Houlin Zhao will be responsible for the operation and affairs decision-making of ITU, the world's largest international organization in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). It is expected that China's influence in the ITU communication policy decision-making process will increase significantly.






    The International Finance Corporation (IFC) of the World Bank

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is one of the two major affiliates of the World Bank. It was established on July 24, 1956, and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in February 1957. 
    The purpose is to assist the World Bank, provide funds to private enterprises in member countries, especially developing countries, by means of loans or investment shares to promote the economic development of member countries. 

    The bank's main sources of funds are: 

    (1) Subscriptions paid by member countries. It was initially 100 million US dollars, divided into 100,000 shares, and after several capital increases, it reached 650 million US dollars.

    (2) The company's accumulated profits, repayments from member countries, and income from the sale of IFC investments. 

    (3) If necessary, you can borrow from the World Bank up to four times the sum of your subscribed capital and provident fund.


    Organization Name:    The international finance corporation

    Location:    One of the World Bank's agencies 
    Officially Established in:    July 1956

    Abbreviated:    IFC

    Established:    February 1957


      Establishment purpose of International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      The opening speech of Robert Ghana, the first president of the International Finance Corporation, on July 25, 1956

      It was mentioned that IFC was the first intergovernmental organization to promote private enterprise development as its main goal.

      The main purpose of the International Finance Corporation is to cooperate with the World Bank’s business activities to provide loans or investments that do not require government guarantees to key private enterprises in member countries, especially developing countries. Also, to encourage international private capital to flow to developing countries to promote the growth of the country’s private enterprises promotes its economic development.

      What is the Organization Structure of International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      The IFC’s organizational structure and management methods are the same as those of the World Bank, and its highest authority is the Council; the Council has an Executive Board, which is responsible for handling daily affairs. director.

      What are the Sources of funds for International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      There are three main sources of funding for IFC:

      (1) Shares paid by Member States.
      (2) Funds borrowed from the World Bank and other sources.
      (3) Net operating income of IFC business operations.

      IFC Business Content

      IFC is committed to promoting the sustainable development of the private sector in developing countries.
      It is meant to promote economic development by promoting the growth of production enterprises and efficient capital markets in member countries.

      IFC investment in emerging market companies and financial institutions can create jobs, strengthen the economy, and generate tax revenue. 

      They also recognize that economic growth is only sustainable if it guarantees environmental and social well-being and improves the quality of life of people in developing countries.

      Logo and Seal of International Finance Corporation (IFC)

      The International Finance Corporation uses its own resources and funds raised in the international financial market to finance projects.

      It also provides technical assistance and advice to governments and enterprises.

      The International Finance Corporation is the multilateral financial institution that provides the largest share capital and loans to developing countries in the world. It provides long-term commercial financing.

      The IFC’s capital comes from its 175 member countries, and the governments of these countries jointly formulate policies and approve investments.

      IFC shares risks with the sponsoring company and financing partners, but does not participate in project management.

      Of the total investment in the project, IFC is only responsible for part of the financing. For every dollar invested by the International Finance Corporation, it can bring in $ 5 of investment from other investors and creditors.

      The IFC's charter stipulates that it operates according to commercial principles and obtains profits. Since its establishment, the company has been profitable every year.

      IFC investments do not require government guarantees.
      Projects involving IFC usually enhance the confidence of all parties, such as foreign investors, local partners, other creditors, and government agencies, while balancing the interests of all parties.

      What are the Principles of International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      The International Finance Corporation is a member of the World Bank Group and a global investment agency and advisory body, designed to promote development.

      Sustainability projects in member countries make them economically effective, financially and commercially robust, and environmentally and socially sustainable.

      The International Finance Corporation believes that healthy economic growth is the key to reducing poverty.
      It should be rooted in entrepreneurship and successful private investment development, and a favorable business environment is essential for the latter’s prosperity and will contribute to the improvement of people's living standards.

      IFC seeks to continuously improve our performance by responding to customers in a timely manner, sharing successes and learning lessons.
      It adds value to developing member countries by the actions as:

      • Assume reasonable risks that the private sector will not bear alone.
      • Create opportunities in marginal countries and sectors to maximize the demonstration effect and catalytic effect of our projects.
      • Through innovative activities to develop new products and services to better meet the needs of our customers.
      • Provide quality consulting services when the private sector is unwilling or unable to do so.
      • Achieve knowledge sharing, promote successful private investment, entrepreneurship and a favorable business environment.
      • Fully implement environmental, social and corporate governance best practices at work.
      • Respond in a timely manner to their needs and the needs of private sector customers.
      • Integrity-Abide by the following principles of integrity in transactions and daily work.
      • Ensure that you and your clients adhere to the highest professional and ethical standards.
      • Remember the importance and value of good corporate governance in every investment.
      • Try to be transparent, responsible and fair.
      • Be honest, open and fair in dealings with each other, with our customers and local communities.


      Environmental and social sustainability

      The International Finance Corporation implements our core commitment to sustainable development through the following measures:

      • Ensure that our projects meet high environmental and social standards.
      • Consult with local communities on project-specific environmental and social impacts and opportunities.
      • Cooperate with responsible customers, other loans and local NGOs.
      • Actively listen to the voices of stakeholders and respond to their concerns.


      What is the Investment scope of International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      IFC has investments in companies with major property rights in the private sector in many developing countries around the world.
      In FY2005, IFC invested in 236 projects in 67 countries, covering all developing regions:

      • Sub-Saharan Africa
      • East Asia and the Pacific
      • South Asia
      • Europe and Central Asia
      • Latin America and the Caribbean
      • Middle East and North Africa


      What is the Development strategy of International Finance Corporation (IFC)?

      For all new investment projects, IFC first determines the expected effects of sustainable development; for mature projects, IFC evaluates the quality of the realized development benefits. In order to maximize the impact of sustainable development, IFC particularly emphasizes the following five strategic priorities:

      (1) Strengthen the focus on marginal markets, especially the small and medium-sized enterprise sector.

      (2) Establish long-term partnerships with emerging global business institutions in developing countries.

      (3) Distinguish IFC from its competitors through sustainable development.

      (4) Resolve restrictions on private sector investment in infrastructure, health and education.

      (5) To develop the domestic financial market through system construction and the application of innovative financial products.

      Related investment

      China is currently one of the countries with the fastest growth in IFC investment. In the single year of fiscal year 2006, IFC committed a total of USD 63.8 billion to 24 projects. 
      From the approval of the first project in 1985 to June 30, 2006, IFC has invested in 115 projects in China and provided US $ 2.86 billion in funding for these projects. 
      With funds, $ 625 million came from other banks in the syndicate.

      The key points of IFC's investment in China are:

      • Encourage the development of China's local private sector, including SMEs.
      • Invest in the financial industry and develop competitive financial institutions so that they can meet internationally accepted corporate governance mechanisms and operating standards.
      • Support the development of western and inland provinces in China.
      • Promote private investment in infrastructure, social services and environmental industries.
      • The private sector has become a pivotal part of China's economy. IFC actively seeks opportunities to provide financing to local private companies that currently only have limited support from investment institutions.

      IFC’s support for SMEs can alleviate the pressure brought about by the reform of state-owned enterprises.
      China's opening to the financial industry will bring new opportunities for IFC to further support the development of commercially viable private financial institutions, especially the banking and insurance industries.

      Financing example

      Energy efficiency industry
      China Utility Energy Efficiency Financing Project

      In China's public utility energy efficiency financing projects, IFC will provide a risk-sharing mechanism for Chinese banks participating in the project with an investment of up to US $ 50 million to support energy efficiency projects with a total loan amount of US $ 115 million. 

      China's public utility energy efficiency financing projects will have a huge development impact in promoting energy efficiency, reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and promoting Chinese SME loans. 

      The Chinese utility energy efficiency financing project was supported by a grant of US $ 16.5 million from the Global Environment Facility and US $ 3 million from the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Finland.

      China's public utility energy efficiency financing project hopes to finally achieve the following goals:
      1. Support the strategic focus on energy efficiency and environmental protection in the 11th Five-Year Plan formulated by the National Development and Reform Commission;
      2. Operate according to commercial principles;
      3. Promote the use of energy-efficient equipment by providing technical assistance and risk-sharing mechanisms;
      4. Form partnerships with utility companies, banks and energy efficiency equipment suppliers to implement the project;
      5. Actively solve the current marketing and financing obstacles in the energy efficiency industry;
      6. Support the government's strategy to accelerate the use of natural gas.

      For the first time, China ’s public utility energy efficiency financing project has brought together utility companies, energy efficiency equipment providers, and banks to create a new financing model to promote energy efficiency projects. 

      Through this project, IFC will support the financing of energy efficiency projects totaling more than US $ 150 million, which will result in a reduction of 5-10 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions.

      Financial market industry

      (1) Panda bonds

      In October 2005, IFC issued the first domestic currency panda bond in the Chinese domestic market. 
      The RMB 1.13 billion bond with a 10-year maturity was issued to institutional investors in the interbank market. 
      IFC raised the bond proceeds to Guangzhou Development Industrial Co., Ltd., Anhui Conch Cement Company and Beijing United Family Hospital.

      The issuance of bonds by the International Finance Corporation standardizes that the Chinese RMB bond market has begun to open to international financial institutions. 
      The issuance also served as a model for the issuance of RMB bonds by high-credit issuers in the future, and it will also help China's capital market to further reform. 
      The issuance of RMB bonds by IFC shows that China's capital market has taken another important step forward. It will further promote the development of China's non-government bond market, thereby increasing private companies' financing channels. 
      The bond issuance has also given IFC a unique opportunity to help the further development of better-quality domestic companies that require domestic currency financing.

      (2) Hangzhou United Bank

      In 2006, the International Finance Corporation bought a 5% stake in Hangzhou United Bank. This was the first case of a foreign shareholding in China Rural Cooperative Bank. 
      This innovative project will provide valuable, first-hand practical experience for the reform and restructuring of China's rural credit cooperatives. 

      IFC has used its deep experience of investing in 

      The IFC’s technical assistance fund will support the reform of the provincial rural cooperative system.

      IFC will also appoint a senior bank manager with rich domestic and international banking experience as a board member of Hangzhou United Bank to advise on the management of Hangzhou United Bank and the construction of modern financial institutions.

      The reform of the rural credit cooperation system has far-reaching significance for the development of China's rural areas and poverty alleviation. The purpose of this project is to establish a scale for China's Agricultural Cooperative Bank. 
      The International Finance Corporation is committed to helping Hangzhou United Bank reach a higher standard in corporate governance, risk disclosure, environment and social responsibility. In this way, they can play a greater role in China's rural financial reform.

      Agricultural industry

      North Andre Apple Juice Concentrate

      After IFC provided a $ 15 million loan to North Andre Concentrated Apple Juice in 2005, IFC provided a $ 4.5 million equity investment to it in 2006. 
      North Andre was established in Shandong in 1996, and then quickly grew into a leading German producer and exporter of concentrated apple juice in China and the world. The loan from IFC will help Northern Andrea Company complete the expansion of the production facilities of its main production bases in the country, especially the expansion of production bases in the economically underdeveloped western regions. 
      This is consistent with the Chinese government's strategy to support economic development in the western region. 
      The investment will also help Northern Andrea increase production efficiency and increase production capacity to the level of processing 1 million tons of apples per year. 
      The IFC’s funds will also help optimize the company’s capital structure and ultimately benefit about two million farmers directly from the production and processing of Apple by Andrea North.
      To help Northern Andrea expand its support to local farmers, IFC will also provide a three-year supply chain technical assistance project with a total amount of 750,000 US dollars.

      The technical assistance project will promote the use of good agricultural production practices such as improving the management of apple growing areas, strengthening the health and hygiene conditions of workers’production in China’s apple production process, reducing the pollution of agricultural chemicals to the environment, and reducing solid and Discharge of liquid waste.

      The technical assistance project will introduce Apple’s traceable supply chain system to North Andre, so that the quality of its products can meet the standards expected by international food manufacturers.

      Infrastructure

      In 2006, IFC provided a long-term loan of US $ 22 million to Yunnan Zhongda Yanjin Power Generation Co., Ltd. 
      International Finance Corporation, in cooperation with DEG, Proparco and FE Global and Asian Clean Energy, jointly support the construction and operation of three runoff power plants with a total installed capacity of 78,000 kW on the Baishui River in Yunnan Province, China. 
      Yunnan Zhongda has 6 small hydropower stations with a total installed capacity of 18,500 kilowatts, all located in Yanjin County, Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province. The main sponsor of the project is Zhejiang Zhongda Sanchuan Hydropower Development Co., Ltd. Located in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, the company is a domestic holding company that develops, owns and operates small hydropower assets in China.

      This is the first time IFC has invested in China’s underdeveloped western province of Yunnan, which will create more job opportunities. Since the project will consume a lot of materials and services, it will greatly promote the development of the local economy. 
      This project will also have a demonstration effect, hoping to attract more investors to invest in Yunnan and other western provinces.
      The construction of this project will further promote the Chinese government's policy of developing hydropower resources to replace thermal power generation. 
      The project is expected to provide approximately 380 million kilowatts of clean energy annually during the 30-year operating period, thereby alleviating the power shortage problem in southern China and expected to reduce 8 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions.

      Development Plan of International Finance Corporation (IFC)

      On October 13, 2018, at the World Bank Annual Meeting held in Bali, Indonesia, the members of the World Bank International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Alipay jointly announced the launch of the 10x1000 technology inclusive plan, which is planned to be an emerging market in the next 10 years The country trains 1,000 technology leaders.



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