World Health Organization, WHO FAQs

UN entity World Health Organization, WHO

The World Health Organization is a specialized agency under the United Nations, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Only sovereign countries can participate. It is the largest international intergovernmental health organization.

The purpose of the World Health Organization is to enable people all over the world to obtain the highest possible level of health.

The main functions of the World Health Organization include:

  1. Promoting the prevention and treatment of epidemics and endemic diseases
  2. Providing and improving education and training in public health, medical treatment of diseases and related matters.
  3. Promoting the determination of international standards for biological products. 

According to Afghan media reports on the 13th, the ICRC and the World Health Organization have ceased activities in Afghanistan due to threats from the Taliban.

On the evening of January 30, 2020 local time, the World Health Organization announced that the new coronavirus epidemic would be listed as a public health emergency of international concern.

On February 10, 2020, the advance team of the New Coronavirus International Expert Group led by the World Health Organization has arrived in China and will cooperate with Chinese personnel to contribute professional knowledge and answer practical questions.


UN Organization name:    World Health Organization

Headquarters:    Geneva, Switzerland

Member States:    194 (2015)

Established:    April 7, 1948

Organization:    Conferences, committees, secretariats, regional organizations

Abbreviated:    WHO, OMS, ВОЗ, OMS, WHO

Current consul general:    Tan Desai

Parent body:    ECOSOC

Type:    United Nations specialized agencies

Official website:    http://www.who.int/



    History of the World Health Organization

    The predecessor of the World Health Organization can be traced back to the International Public Health Bureau established in Paris in 1907 and the International Union Health Organization established in Geneva in 1920.

    After the war, as determined by the UN Economic and Social Council, representatives of 64 countries held an international health conference in July 1946 in New York and signed the Constitution of the World Health Organization.

    On April 7, 1948, the law came into effect after being approved by 26 UN member states, and the World Health Organization proclaimed its establishment.

    Every year on April 7th becomes the global "World Health Day". On June 24 of the same year, the World Health Organization was formally established at the first World Health Assembly in Geneva, with its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.

    In 1851, the first international health conference was held in Paris with the aim of formulating international health conventions, but without success.

    In 1892, the international health convention to control cholera was adopted.

    During 1897, another international convention, the preventive method of dealing with plague, was adopted.

    In 1902, the International Health Bureau, later renamed the Pan American Health Bureau, later changed to the Pan American Health Organization, established in Washington.

    It is the predecessor of today's Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization's Regional Office for the Americas.

    In 1907, the International Public Health Office (OIHP) was established in Paris with a stable secretariat and a stable committee composed of senior public health officials from member governments.

    In 1919, the Allied Power was established. Among other tasks, it was responsible for solving disease prevention and control issues of international concern. The Allied Health Organization was established in Geneva, parallel to (OIHP).

    During 1926, prevention of smallpox and typhus was incorporated into the International Health Convention.

    In 1935, the Aviation International Health Convention entered into force.

    In 1938, the last international health conference was held in Paris. The quarantine of Conseil Health and Navigation in Alexandria was transferred to Egypt. (The Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization is its direct descendant).

    During 1945, at the United Nations Conference on International Organizations, Brazil and China unanimously approved the establishment of a new autonomous international health organization.

    In 1946, the New York International Health Conference adopted the Charter of the World Health Organization (WHO).

    In 1947, the WHO Committee organized a trip to Egypt to help curb the epidemic of cholera.

    During 1948, when the 26th member of the 61 member states signed the endorsement signature on April 7, the WHO Charter (as the annual World Health Day) came into force.

    Later, the first World Health Assembly was held in Geneva, Representatives from 53 governments participated and later became members of the World Health Organization.

    In 1951, the text of the newly established international health regulations was adopted by the Fourth World Health Assembly, replacing the previous international health convention.

    In 1969, these renamed international health regulations removed lice-borne typhus and fever. Only cholera, plague, smallpox and yellow fever were kept.

    During 1973, a report from the Executive Committee showed that there was general dissatisfaction with health services and that fundamental changes were needed.

    The Twenty-sixth World Health Assembly decided that WHO will work with member states instead of helping to jointly develop practical guidelines for the national health care system.

    In 1974, WHO launched an expanded immunization program aimed at protecting children from diseases such as polio, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and tuberculosis.

    During 1977, the Thirtieth World Health Assembly established a goal: to reach the level of health care by the end of this century and the beginning of the next century: In 2000 everyone enjoys health care. Everyone will live a socially and economically rich life.

    In 1978, the WHO / UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) Joint International Conference in Almaty, Soviet Union adopted a statement regarding the primary health care as the key to finally achieve the goal of health care for all in 2000.

    During 1979, the UN General Assembly and the 32nd World Health Assembly emphasized that health is a powerful lever for socio-economic and peaceful development.

    In 1979, the world approved the certification of the eradication of smallpox worldwide, and the last natural case of smallpox occurred in 1977.

    In 1981, the Global Health for All Strategy was adopted in 2000 and signed by the UN General Assembly, requesting other relevant international organizations to cooperate with WHO.

    During 1987, the UN General Assembly expressed concern about the AIDS epidemic. A global plan on AIDS was launched within WHO.

    In 1988, to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the founding of WHO. The Eleventh World Health Assembly decided to eliminate polio in 2000.

    In 1993, the United Nations Children ’s Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Rockefeller Foundation jointly launched an active child immunization vaccine.

    During 1996, the WHO Health Development Center was established in Kobe, Japan.

    1998 The 50th anniversary of the signing of the WHO Convention.

    62nd World Health Assembly was held at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland

    On December 12, 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) jointly adopted two new vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), which provide for the promotion of the vaccine in developing countries Opportunities. HPV is the culprit in causing cervical cancer in women.

     

    WHO Directors

    On January 4, 2007, Dr. Chen Fengfuzhen was officially appointed as the Director-General of WHO. On January 9, Dr. Fengfeng Chen appointed Dr. Anarfi Asamoa-Baah as the new Deputy Director-General of WHO. Dr. Anarfi Asamoa-Baah has been a senior WHO official since 1998.

    On January 16, 2007, the World Health Organization reported significant progress in an HIV control project in Kenya. The project uses an electronic registration system to record HIV patient detection and treatment information in real time, which has revolutionized the HIV treatment model.

    With the assistance of WHO, Moi University in Elderlite (Kenya) and Indiana State University in the United States completed the treatment of nearly 70,000 patients using this system.

    In May 2012, the WHO’s priority setting process was the top priority in the World Health Assembly’s discussions on reform issues, and Member States recognized the results of February’s Member States’ planning and priority setting meetings, while recognizing that Special attention is given to the determinants of health.

    Many reforms in the governance and management planning group were approved, and the Secretariat was asked to move forward, including implementation.

    In other areas such as WHO financing, Member States requested the Secretariat to discuss this issue again at a special meeting of the Planning, Budget and Administration Committee (PBAC) scheduled for early December.

    In 2012, the 65th World Health Assembly decided to adopt a global goal to reduce premature mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases by 25% by 2025.

    In May 2014, the 67th World Health Assembly adopted the Traditional Medicine Strategy from 2014 to 2023, urging governments of all countries to pay attention to the role of traditional medicine in health care and further improve the standardization and safety of traditional medicine. This move will promote the development of Chinese medicine.

    The World Health Organization announced that Liberia has not had any new cases of Ebola in the past 42 days, and the Ebola outbreak in Liberia has ended.

    On January 15, 2016, according to China Voice News, the World Health Organization recently announced that the last Ebola virus test in Liberia was negative, and the country has not added Ebola virus for 42 consecutive days Infected cases, this time is twice the longest incubation period of Ebola virus 21 days, so the epidemic can be declared ended.

    This also marks the end of the Ebola virus epidemic that has ravaged West Africa since 2014. [9] But just a few hours later, Sierra Leone’s health officials confirmed that someone in Sierra Leone had died of Ebola virus.

    On May 23, 2017, on the afternoon of May 23, local time, the 70th World Health Assembly in Geneva elected the former Foreign Minister of the country, nominated by the Ethiopian Government, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, as The new Director-General of the World Health Organization. He is the first Director-General from Africa in the nearly 70-year history of WHO.


    What is the purpose of WHO?

    World Health Organization Purpose: Enable people all over the world to get the highest possible level of health.

    The World Health Organization defines health as "the perfect state in physical, mental, and social activities."


    WHO Emblem

    The emblem of the World Health Organization is selected by the 1st World Health Assembly in 1948.

    The emblem consists of the UN logo covered by a snake-coiled scepter.

    For a long time, the scepter coiled by snakes has been a symbol of medicine and the medical world.

    It originated from the story of Asclepius, the ancient Greeks respected it as a medical god, and its worship involves the use of snakes.

    Greece is the birthplace of the snake emblem. From ancient times to the present, snake emblems have spread all over Greece. In modern times, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany and the United Nations World Health Organization have all used the snake emblem as their medical symbol.

    Before the 1950s, the emblem of the Chinese Medical Association of China also had a snake emblem. The cover of the "Chinese Medical Journal" published in April 1948 is a striking snake emblem.


    WHO goals

    Our goal is to create a better and healthier future for people around the world.

    WHO has six regions, 194 Member States, and its staff work in more than 150 offices, working together to improve the health of everyone around the world.

    We work together to prevent and treat diseases, including infectious diseases such as flu and HIV, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer and heart disease.

    We help mothers and children survive and prosper, so that they can look forward to a healthy old age.

    We make sure people breathe safe air, eat safe food, drink safe water, and make sure they use safe medicines and vaccines.


    What is the Organization structure of World Health Organization?

    General Assembly

    The General Assembly of the World Health Organization is the highest authority of WHO, and it is held in Geneva every May.

    The main tasks are to review the work report of the Director General, plan the budget, admit new Member States and discuss other important issues.

    The Executive Committee is the executive body of the World Health Assembly and is responsible for implementing the resolutions, policies and mandated tasks of the General Assembly. It consists of 32 qualified technical experts in the field of health, and each member is selected by its member country.


    WHO

    Approved by the World Health Assembly, the term of office is three years, and one-third is re-elected every year. According to the Gentlemen’s Agreement of the World Health Organization, the five permanent members of the UN Security Council are inevitable members of the Executive Committee, but the seats will be in a year after the third year.

    The Secretariat of the Permanent Establishment has six regional offices in Africa, America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific.


    Committee

    The committee is the highest executive body of WHO, and holds two plenary meetings every year


    Secretariat

    The WHO Secretariat is a permanent body of WHO.


    Regional organization

    WHO is divided into 6 regional committees and regional offices:

    1. WHO Africa Region
    2. WHO Americas Region
    3. WHO Southeast Asia Region
    4. WHO Europe Region
    5. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region
    6. WHO Western Pacific Region


    Representative

    The professional organizations of the World Health Organization include consultants and ad hoc consultants, expert committees (there are 47 advisory groups with more than 2,600 members, including 96 in China), global and regional medical research advisory committees and cooperation centers.


    Member States of WHO

    All UN member states that accept the Charter of the World Health Organization can become members of the World Health Organization.

    Other countries can become members of the World Health Organization after their applications have been voted by the World Health Assembly by simple vote.

    Areas that cannot bear responsibility in international relations affairs can be entered into the World Health Organization as reserve members based on applications made by the WHO member states or other authorities that can take responsibility for international relations in the area based on their own interests.

    The member states of the World Health Organization are distributed by region (a total of 193 member states, 2 associate members, and 6 observers).

    Africa region (the office is headquartered in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of Congo)

    Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon , Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Cyprus Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

    Americas Region (the office is headquartered in Washington, DC)

    Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico , Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico (reserve member), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela.

    Southeast Asia region (the office is headquartered in the Indian capital New Delhi)

    Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

    European Region (the office is headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Northern Ireland, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Moldova, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, North Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan Stan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan.

    Eastern Mediterranean Region (The office is headquartered in Cairo, Egypt)

    Israel, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen.

    Western Pacific Region (the office is headquartered in Manila, the capital of the Philippines)

    Australia, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands (New), Fiji, Japan, Kiribati, Laos, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Mongolia, Nauru, North Korea, New Zealand, Niue (New), Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, South Korea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tokelau (reserve member), Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Samoa.

    The member states and associate members of the World Health Organization sorted by strokes of Chinese characters are as follows:

    Non-member observation country or region

    International Red Cross, Chinese Taipei, Vatican, Liechtenstein, Knights of Malta, Palestine.


    Organize tasks

    1. Guide and coordinate international health work.

    2. Based on applications from governments of various countries, assist in strengthening national health services and provide technical assistance.

    3. Preside over international epidemiology and health statistics operations.

    4. Promote the prevention and elimination of epidemics, endemic and other diseases.

    5. Promote the prevention of industrial accidents and improve nutrition, housing, family planning and mental health.

    6. Promote cooperation between scientific and professional groups engaged in improving people's health.

    7. Propose international health conventions, plans and agreements.

    8. Promote and guide biomedical research.

    9. Promote medical education and training.

    10. Formulate international names for diseases, causes of death and public health implementation.

    11. Formulate international normative standards for diagnostic methods.

    12. Formulate and develop international standards for food hygiene, biological products, and pharmaceuticals.

    13. Assist in the publicity and education of health among people of all countries.


    Previous Director-Generals of WHO

    1. Brock Chisholm (Canada) 1948-1953

    2. Marcolino Gomes Candau (Brazilian) 1953-1973

    3. Halfdan Theodor Mahler Danish citizen 1973-1988

    4. Hiroshi Nakajima (Japanese) 1988-1998

    5, Gro Harlem Brundtland (Gro Harlem Brundtland) Norwegian citizen May 13, 1998-July 21, 2003

    6. Lee Jong-wook Korean nationality July 21, 2003-May 22, 2006

    Acting Anders Nordström (Anders Nordström) Swedish nationality May 22, 2006-November 8, 2006

    7. Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun (Hong Kong, China) January 4, 2007-July 1, 2017

    8. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus Ethiopian nationality July 1, 2017-present [5]


    What is the Source of Funding of WHO?

    Sources of funding for WHO: Member States’ contributions, which constitute a “regular budget”.

    Special funds provided by the Pan American Health Organization, Promotion Organization Voluntary Fund, UNICEF, Drug Abuse Control Fund, UNEP, Emergency Activities, Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, Disaster Relief Agency, World Bank, etc.

    WHO Programme Budget 2014–2015

    1. Approve all sources of funding for the 2014–2015 financial period, that is, a budget of US $ 3.997 billion for assessed contributions and voluntary contributions.

    2. Allocate the budget for the 2014-2015 financial period to the following six categories:

    (1) Infectious diseases 841 million US dollars.

    (2) Non-communicable diseases US $ 318 million.

    (3) Promoting health throughout the life course of USD 388 million.

    (4) The health system is 531 million US dollars.

    (5) Prevention, monitoring and response of US $ 287 million.

    (6) Promotional functions, organization-wide services of US $ 684 million and the emergency component of the budget of US $ 928 million

    yuan.

    3. The funding channels for determining the budget are as follows:

    Adjusted based on estimated non-assessed income of Member States for a total net assessment of $ 929 million in Member States.

    A total of US $ 3.048 billion in voluntary contributions.

    4. The Director General proposes to increase the planned budget for 2016-2017 by US $ 236.6 million.


    Publications of WHO

    "World Health Organization Monthly Report", 6 issues per year, English, French, Arabic, Russian and other languages; monthly report focuses on a specific theme every year. Contains expert assessments of global health, including statistical data.

    Epidemiology Weekly, English and French; epidemiological information on infectious disease cases and outbreaks.

    "World Health Statistics", quarterly, English, French, Chinese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, etc .;

    "World Health", monthly, English, French, Russian, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Arabic and other languages.

    "WHO Indoor Air Quality Guidelines: Household Fuel Combustion"

    This guide is the third part in a series of guides (the first and second parts are indoor air quality guidelines for some pollutants, humidity and mold), and are technical recommendations specifically for household fuel and combustion technology characteristics.

    "Preventing secondhand smoke exposure: policy recommendations"

    There is no so-called "safe level" for secondhand smoke exposure and it can cause a variety of diseases for adults and children. Implementing a "100% smoke-free environment" is the only way to effectively protect people from second-hand smoke.

    A number of countries and regions have successfully implemented corresponding laws, requiring work and public places to be “completely smoke-free”.

    According to their experience, the smoke-free environment is not only feasible, but also generally welcomed by people before and after implementation.


    Relations of WHO with China

    China is one of the founding countries of WHO. From April 25 to June 26, 1945, the "United Nations Charter" adopted at the United Nations founding conference in San Francisco did not mention the contents of health work, nor did it mention the establishment of an international health institution.

    Shi Siming was the secretary of Song Ziwen, the head of the Chinese delegation attending the San Francisco conference. He noticed this detail, which triggered the birth of the World Health Organization.

    Chinese representative Shi Siming, together with Brazilian representative Suza, submitted the "Declaration on the Establishment of an International Health Organization", which laid the foundation for the creation of the World Health Organization.

    On May 10, 1972, the 25th World Health Assembly passed a resolution to restore China’s legal seat in the World Health Organization. Since then, China has attended all previous World Health Organization conferences and regional committee meetings, was elected as a member of the Executive Committee, and signed a memorandum and basic agreement on health technology cooperation with the World Health Organization.

    In October 1978, the Minister of Health of China and the Director General of the World Health Organization signed the "Memorandum of Understanding on Health Technology Cooperation" in Beijing, which was a milestone in the history of friendly cooperation between the two sides.

    In 1981, the World Health Organization established a representative office in Beijing. In 1991, Chinese Minister of Health Chen Minzhang was awarded the Gold Medal of the World Health Organization's highest honorary award "Everyone Has Health Care". He was the world's first health minister to be awarded this award.

    China and the World Health Organization have held 18 technical cooperation coordination planning meetings, and the World Health Organization has provided various aids to China of about 96 million US dollars.

    In 1981, the World Health Organization established a representative office in Beijing.

    In response to Taiwan’s requirements and desires to participate in the World Health Organization, after communication and coordination between the relevant parties on both sides of the strait, the Chinese government agreed that Taiwan should join the WHO in the name of "Chinese Taipei" as a WHO observer.

    In April 2009, the Director-General of the World Health Organization Chen Feng Fuzhen sent a letter inviting the Chinese Taipei Department of Health to attend the 62nd WHO Conference in Geneva from May 18 to 27, 2009 as an observer.

    China's World Health Organization (WHO) cooperation centers have reached 69, the number of which ranks first among the countries in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization.

    There are more than 30 majors in the existing subject. The World Health Organization Cooperation Center, as a window for health technology cooperation between China and the World Health Organization, has played an active role in radiation and demonstration in promoting international and domestic health technology exchanges and personnel training. It is an important force in health care goals.

    On the afternoon of July 5, 2017, the World Health Organization awarded the Chinese Government with an "Outstanding Model Award for Social Health Governance" to commemorate the 65th anniversary of the Chinese Patriotic Health Campaign and commend the brilliant achievements of the patriotic health campaign.

    On April 15, 2020, Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian held a regular press conference. A reporter asked that the US has announced that it will stop funding WHO.

    Is China prepared to provide more funds to fill the funding gap?

    Zhao Lijian: China has always supported WHO to play a leading role in the international fight against the epidemic. China has donated US $ 20 million to WHO and will continue to provide support and assistance to WHO within its capacity.


    Relations of WHO with the United States

    The United States is one of the founding countries of WHO. On September 16, 2014, the US government will vigorously increase its response to Ebola in West Africa on the basis of the original one.

    WHO welcomes this contribution. This new commitment supports the United Nations and other international partners in assisting the epidemic control efforts of the governments of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal.

    The Director-General of WHO, Dr. Fengfeng Chen said, "This vigorous expansion of support from the United States is exactly the kind of fundamental change we need to control the epidemic and start to reverse the situation."

    At the White House press conference on April 14, 2020, Trump announced that the United States would suspend funding for the World Health Organization. He accused the World Health Organization of not sharing information on the epidemic in time, providing timely advice on epidemic prevention policies, and not promptly announcing the global pandemic. Trump said, "after such a long time, it is time for them to be held accountable".

    Earlier, Trump had criticized WHO's approach to the new coronary pneumonia epidemic and threatened to suspend the organization's dues.

    WHO Director-General Tan Desai said on the 8th, "Please do not politicize this virus. It is taking advantage of the differences between different countries. If you want to be used (by it) like this, if you want more Shroud, okay, then you do it like this ", these words are generally considered to be a response to Trump's remarks.

     

    60th anniversary

    WHO 60 Activity Framework

    Subordinate departments, countries and regions can contribute to WHO60 by organizing and promoting various activities within the framework of WHO60.

    The overall activity framework for the whole year is as follows:

    Recalling history: January to March 2008

    In January, the World Health Organization Executive Committee met during the event and launched the WHO60 photo exhibition. Relevant activities continued in February and March, focusing on the major achievements in the field of public health over the past 60 years.

    Looking to the future: April to December 2008

    Since April 2008, a series of communication activities have outlined the future direction of WHO’s work, highlighting the most cutting-edge topics such as combating climate change, protecting human health, the future development of primary health care, and information and communication technologies.

    The two major milestones during the WHO60 are World Health Day on April 7, 2008 and the World Health Assembly in May 2008.

     




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