United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is abbreviated as UNESCO (English: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, abbreviated as UNESCO). It was formally established on November 16, 1945. Headquartered in the French capital Paris, it has 195 members Is the specialized agency with the largest number of members of the United Nations in the fields of international education, science and culture. The organization aims to promote cooperation among nations and contribute to world peace and security through education, science and culture. Its main institutions include the General Assembly, the Executive Board and the Secretariat.

On November 1-16, 1945, just after the end of World War II, the United Nations Conference (ECO / CONF) aimed at establishing an educational and cultural organization was held in London on the proposal of the Allied Education Ministers’ Conference. Representatives from about forty countries attended. Promoted by France and Britain, the delegates of the meeting decided to establish an organization with the purpose of building a true culture of peace. According to their vision, this new organization should establish "human and moral unity" to prevent the outbreak of a new world war. At the end of the meeting, thirty-seven countries signed the Constitution, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was born.

In November 2018, the “Belt and Road” International Scientific Organization Alliance was formally established, and UNESCO joined the alliance as the first batch of member units.

On December 31, 2018, the United States and Israel officially withdrew from UNESCO.

Organization Name

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization



Organization Purpose

 Promote international cooperation in education, etc.


  November 16, 1945

Organization Headquarters

    Place Fontenay, Paris, France

Current Director General

Audrey Azule

Official Website


Most Important Relevant FAQs on United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO:

    Development History of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO

    In 1942, just as World War II raged, European governments fighting against the German Nazis and their allies convened a meeting of allied education ministers in England. 

    At that time, the war was far from over, but these countries began to think about how to rebuild the education system once peace was restored. This idea quickly progressed, causing widespread repercussions.

    More governments, including the United States of America, decided to participate. The first UNESCO General Conference was held at the Sorbonne University in Paris from November 20 to December 10, 1946.

    On November 1-16, 1945, when World War II ended, the United Nations Conference (ECO / CONF) aimed at establishing an educational and cultural organization was held in London on the proposal of the Allied Education Ministers’ Conference. Representatives of about forty countries attended the meeting. 

    Driven by two war-torn countries, France and Britain, the delegates of the meeting decided to establish an organization with the purpose of building a true culture of peace.

    According to their vision, this new organization should establish "human and moral unity" to prevent the outbreak of a new world war.

    At the end of the meeting, thirty-seven countries signed the Constitution, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was born.

    In 1946, the Constitution was approved by the following 20 countries and entered into force: South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, United States of America, France, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, Norway, New Zealand, Dominican Republic, United Kingdom, Czechoslovakia and Turkey.

    On October 31, 2011, the General Conference of UNESCO (UNESCO) voted at the Paris headquarters, and Palestine was officially accepted as a full member of the organization.

    On November 5, 2013, on the occasion of the 67th anniversary of the organization, Hao Ping, Vice Minister of Education and Chairman of the National Commission for UNESCO of China, was elected as the 37th General Assembly Chairman of the organization.

    In November 2018, the “Belt and Road” International Scientific Organization Alliance was formally established, and UNESCO joined the alliance as the first batch of member units.

    What is the Organization Purpose of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?

    The purpose of the organization is to promote cooperation among nations through education, science, and culture, and to contribute to peace and security, so as to promote the enjoyment of justice, the rule of law, and the people of the world recognized by the United Nations Charter regardless of race, gender, language, or religion Universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

    What is the Main Function of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?

    UNESCO is a forum among governments.

    On international organizations on educational, scientific and cultural issues, five major functions are set up:

    1. Forward-looking research: what kind of education, science, culture and communication will be needed in the world of tomorrow.

    2. The development, dissemination and exchange of knowledge, mainly rely on research, training and teaching.

    3. Formulate guidelines. Draft and adopt international documents and legal recommendations.

    4. Knowledge and technology: Provided to Member States in the form of "technical cooperation" to formulate development policies and development plans.

    5. Exchange of specialized information.

    What is the Organizational Structure of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?

    There are three major departments: the General Assembly, the Executive Board and the Secretariat.

    The General Assembly is the highest body and is composed of representatives of Member States. Generally, the General Assembly is held every two years (before 1954, it is held once a year, and after 1954, it is changed to a biennial session.

    The general meeting is held in Paris, and there are eight times outside the headquarters: in Mexico in 1947, Lebanon in 1948, and Buddha in Italy in 1950.

    The city (Florence), Uruguay in 1954, India in 1956, Kenya in 1976, Yugoslavia in 1980, and Bulgaria in 1985 (including the remaining seven times except the Buddha city were held in the national capital).

    The Executive Board is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the organization’s plans and holds at least 2 meetings a year. 

    The term of office of the committee members is 4 years, and that of the director-general is 6 years.

    The current director-general of the organization is French Audrey Azule, and she is also the second female director-general since the establishment of the organization.

    The secretariat is the daily work organization, divided into several

    Departments, respectively implement business activities in the fields of education, natural sciences, social sciences, culture and communication, or carry out administrative and planning work. 

    Each department is headed by an assistant director general.

    In addition, the organization has established national committees in the capitals of more than 200 member and associate member countries and regions, including China, as its permanent institutions in various member states (including South Sudan, Anguilla and the Cayman Islands to date).

    There is no National Committee, the German National Committee is located in Bonn instead of Berlin, and the contact addresses of the National Committees in Oman and Somalia are not in Muscat and Mogadishu but in the UNESCO headquarters in Paris). Established in Beijing on February 19, 1979.

    Secretariat of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO

    Brief introduction

    The secretariat is composed of international civil servants at the Paris headquarters and regional offices. 

    In January 2007, the Secretariat’s staff was approximately 2,100, from more than 170 countries.

    They included cadres (professionals) and non-cadres (general service staff). As a result of decentralized measures, about two thirds of the staff work at headquarters, and more than 700 people work outside the headquarters, which consists of 50 offices, 2 liaison offices, and 1 center.

    Medium-term strategy

    The Medium-Term Strategy 2002-2007 and the Program and Budget 2002-2003 were approved by the UNESCO in Resolution III / 1 adopted by the 31st Session of the UNESCO General Conference from October to November 2001 The pillar of the plan for the reform of cultural organizations.

    This strategy aims to propose the main functions of the organization from a new perspective. In short, the “Medium-Term Strategy” is formulated around the unique unified theme “UNESCO contributes to peace and human development in the age of globalization through education, science and culture and communication”.

    Therefore, it should strive to link UNESCO’s mandate and role with people-centred globalization.

    The "Strategy" uses a common goal to unify the four major program areas and defines a limited number of strategic goals, that is, a total of 12 for the entire organization, 3 for each plan.

    Around these strategic objectives, two horizontal themes were developed that should be included in all plans: 

    "Eradication of poverty, especially extreme poverty", and "Information and communication technologies contribute to the development of education, science and culture, and the building of a knowledge society ".

    Headquarters Network of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO

    Decentralization is a means by which UNESCO conceives and implements plans that meet the specific circumstances and needs of each country and have world impact.

    The field network is composed of various offices (country offices, regional offices, multi-country offices, and liaison offices) distributed around the world by region and by topic.

    The plans of UNESCO’s agencies and central secretariats at headquarters and off-site are assisted by a series of agencies and centers that are engaged in higher-level work in UNESCO’s main areas of action.

    Sites of UNESCO’s institutions and centres:

    1. UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education (Bucharest, Romania)
    2. UNESCO Abdul Salaam International Center for Theoretical Physics (Trieste, Italy)
    3. UNESCO African Institute for International Capacity Development (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)
    4. UNESCO Educational Institute (Hamburg, Germany)
    5. UNESCO Water Education Institute (Delft, Netherlands)
    6. UNESCO International Educational Planning Institute (Paris, France; Buenos Aires, Argentina)
    7. UNESCO Institute for International Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Venezuela Caracas)
    8. UNESCO International Education Bureau (Geneva, Switzerland)
    9. UNESCO Institute of Educational Information Technology (Moscow, Russia)
    10. UNESCO International Technical and Vocational Education and Training Center (Bonn, Germany)
    11. UNESCO Institute of Statistics (Montreal, Canada)
    12. United Nations Caribbean Education Innovation for Development Service Network (Bridgetown, Barbados
    13. UNESCO Institute of Trace Elements (Lyon, France)

    Permanent Establishment

    (1) International Education Bureau

    Located in Geneva, Switzerland. The task is to assist in the preparation and organization of the biennial international public education conference, the publication of the International Education Yearbook and Comparative Education Research Series, and the establishment of an international educational information exchange network.

    (2) International Education Planning Institute

    Located in Paris, France. The main activities are to organize personnel training in education plans and education administration, and to conduct cooperative research on education plans, education reform evaluation methods, and the relationship between education and labor and employment.

    (3) UNESCO Institute of Education

    Based in Hamburg, Germany. Mainly study the theory of lifelong education and its implementation in the education system, education content, teacher training and other aspects.

    (4) European Higher Education Center

    Based in Bucharest, Romania. The main task is to organize cooperation and exchanges in the field of higher education among European member states. 

    Over the years, UNESCO has carried out activities such as the International Year of Education and the International Year of Children, and has implemented the third UNESCO “Mid-Term Plan” and “International Cooperation and Peace Education Linked Schools Plan”.

    Which are the Organization Members of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?


    As of February 3, 2020, UNESCO has 193 member countries, and 11 associate members, a total of 204 countries and regions. China is one of the founding countries of UNESCO. 

    In 1972, activities at the organization resumed.


    Countries: Afghanistan, UAE, Oman, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Palestine, Bahrain, Bhutan, North Korea, East Timor, Philippines, Georgia, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Qatar, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Maldives, Malaysia, Mongolia , Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Brunei, Uzbekistan, Singapore, Syria, Armenia, Yemen, Iraq, Iran, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Vietnam, China

    Region: Macau, China


    Countries: Albania, Ireland, Estonia, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Northern Macedonia, Belgium, Iceland, Poland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Denmark, Germany, Russia, France, Finland, Netherlands, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Serbia, Cyprus, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Spain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    Region: Faroe Islands


    Countries: Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Equatorial Guinea, Togo, Eritrea, Cape Verde, Gambia, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea South Africa, South Africa, South Sudan, Niger , Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Seychelles, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland, Sudan, Somalia, Tunisia, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Chad, Central African Republic

    North America

    Countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Bahamas, Panama, Belize, Dominica, Dominica, Grenada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Haiti, Honduras, Canada, Mexico, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Jamaica

    Regions: Aruba, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curacao, Montserrat, Sint Maarten

    South America

    Countries: Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Uruguay, Chile


    Countries: Australia, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati, Cook Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (Federated States of), Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, New Zealand

    District: Tokelau

    Note: Member States and Associate Members are sorted in order of Chinese pinyin.

    Former Member

    United States: In 1984, the United States chose to withdraw from UNESCO on the grounds that the organization was too politicized, and then returned in 2003.

    On December 31, 2018, the United States withdrew from UNESCO, the second time the United States withdrew from the organization.

    Israel: On October 12, 2017, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Israel would withdraw from UNESCO.

    Activity area

    UNESCO has established more than a dozen intergovernmental agencies and large-scale cooperation programs within the scope of its education, science, culture, communication and information to promote international intellectual cooperation.

    Among them are:

    • The International Bureau of Education
    • People and The Biosphere Project, the International Geological Contrast Project
    • The International Hydrological Project
    • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
    • Social Change Management Plan
    • The World Heritage Committee
    • The Intergovernmental Committee for Promoting the Return of Cultural Property to the Host Country or the Illegal Possession of Cultural Property
    • Intergovernmental Committee for the World Copyright Convention International communication development plan
    • Comprehensive information plan, intergovernmental informatics plan, intergovernmental sports committee, etc.

    The executive governing bodies elected by the UNESCO General Assembly are responsible for planning and managing the activities of each plan and establishing their own international or regional cooperation networks, such as the "International Biosphere Reserve Network" and the "World Heritage List".

    In addition, UNESCO has established formal (collaboration, consulting) or business relationships with more than 300 non-governmental international organizations that have important positions and influence in the fields of education, science, and culture. Development education is the focus of UNESCO’s work.

    In 1990, UNESCO cooperated with other relevant UN agencies to hold the World Education for All Conference in Thailand. 

    The goals of literacy and universal primary education put forward by the conference had a profound impact on the development of education in the international community in the next 10 years.

    In October 1998, UNESCO held the world’s unprecedented “World Higher Education Conference” for the first time in Paris. 

    The conference conducted special seminars on the quality, objectives, financing and management of higher education, and international cooperation.

    The Declaration on Higher Education in the 21st Century: Ideas and Actions and the Priority Programme of Action for Higher Education Reform and Development. In April 1999, UNESCO held the "International Vocational and Technical Education Conference" in Seoul, South Korea.

    The meeting proposed that vocational and technical education is not the ultimate education and simple technical training, but a link in the lifelong education system.

    It is an education that improves people's abilities and skills, is oriented to employment, and develops people's creativity.

    In April 2000, UNESCO organized the Education for All Forum in Senegal, summarizing the shortcomings in the process of literacy and universal primary education in the past 10 years and formulating new strategies for future work.

    Logo and Seal of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO

    The world’s environmental issues have increasingly become the focus of human attention. Ecological protection and natural resource management are UNESCO’s priority projects in the field of science and technology.

    In September 1996, UNESCO launched and convened the World Solar Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, which exemplified the organization’s “Africa First” and contribution to Africa’s sustainable development.

    According to the rapid development of international biotechnology in the 1990s, UNESCO established the International Bioethics Committee in 1995 to study and formulate international normative documents. 

    In November 1997, the 29th General Conference of UNESCO adopted the "Declaration on Human Genome and Human Rights", which made ethical standards for the research of human genomes in countries around the world.

    In June 1999, UNESCO cooperated with the International Science Council to hold the "World Science Congress" in Budapest.

    The meeting adopted two important documents: "Scientific Declaration" and "Framework for Action." UNESCO has always attached importance to the status and role of culture in development.

    In 1991, UNESCO initiated the establishment of the World Commission for Culture and Development headed by the former Secretary-General of the United Nations Perez de Cuellar, and began to study the relationship between culture and development. 

    In the autumn of 1995, UNESCO published a report entitled "Our Creative Diversity" prepared by the committee.

    In order to implement the relevant recommendations of the report, from March to March 1998, UNESCO and the Swedish government held the “Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policy for Development” in Stockholm. 

    This is UNESCO's largest intergovernmental meeting to discuss cultural issues since the 1982 Mexico City Cultural Policy Conference.

    The meeting conducted extensive discussions on issues such as cultural diversity, the relationship between culture and development, cultural rights, and international cultural cooperation, and adopted the Action Plan for Cultural Policy for Development.

    Education Field

    UNESCO’s plan in the field of education aims to achieve a lifelong goal of EFA at all levels.

    In fact, education is essential for personal development, economic growth and social solidarity.

    This is also a decisive role in fighting poverty and maintaining sustainable development.

    The International Education Forum, held in Dakar (Senegal) in 2000, established an action framework for progress in achieving these goals:

    1. Strengthen the attention and education of early childhood
    2. Universal primary education
    3. Increase the educational opportunities of young people and adults
    4. Reduce the adult illiteracy rate by half
    5. Strive to achieve gender equality
    6. Improve the quality of education in all aspects.

    Among these goals, the two main and also included in the UN Millennium Development Goals are:

    1. Universal primary education
    2. Elimination of gender inequality in education

    It is within this framework that UNESCO ’s medium-term strategy (2002-2007) was formulated.

    The three main objectives on which the strategy is based are:

    1. The promotion of the basic human right of education
    2. Improvement of the quality of education through diversification of content and methods. This area promotes experimentation, innovation, publication, exchange and sharing of data and better methods, and encourages dialogue around education policies.

    In the social sciences and humanities, UNESCO’s role is to ensure the advancement of knowledge, standards, and intellectual cooperation in order to promote social transformation that guarantees the consolidation of world-wide values ​​such as justice, freedom, and human tolerance.

    Therefore, the main mission can be boiled down to the following points:

    1. Researching reality (through experience-based research in the social sciences and humanities)
    2. Anticipating what might happen in this reality (through philosophy and observational research)
    3. Ascertaining speculation

    For real things (through ethics and human rights), the purpose is to narrow the gap between reality and better reality.

    From school teaching in Africa with only one class to education ministers in Asia, UNESCO works at all levels to promote the dissemination and education of human rights.

    By providing materials for training instructors, organizing meetings, helping to develop strategies and developing national, regional and international networks, UNESCO strives to make human rights and the fight against discrimination and intolerance an important subject of research and decision-making.

    While promoting conventions and international instruments related to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the organization also encourages research in the area of ​​neglected human rights. 

    These areas are related to cultural and social issues, such as gender equality and the right to education.

    UNESCO’s ethical attitude towards scientific progress also applies to social changes related to globalization. 

    With the help of the “Social Change Management Plan”, UNESCO conducts research on issues such as urbanization and management through a series of field projects, consultations and a university network.

    Social change management plans are increasingly focusing on research that can help governments or local governments to formulate policies and develop appropriate structures in a multicultural society, with a focus on social inclusion and poverty eradication.

    The cooperation between UNESCO and UNESCO in the field of education continues to expand, covering all levels of education and scientific research. 

    The benefit of these activities extends to 20 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country. 

    As an international intellectual cooperation agency, UNESCO’s educational activities are mainly in the form of:

    (1) Holding various types of international conferences to promote policy dialogue

    (2) Carrying out educational research on the world's education To discuss some of the hot issues

    (3) Promote the exchange of educational personnel and educational achievements, promote information transmission and exchange by issuing publications and establishing information networks

    (4) Hold training activities

    (5) Carry out experimental projects.

    Attend the International Education Conference. China has always attached great importance to the education conference.

    Through the conference, it proclaimed China's education policies and policies, grasped the development trend of world education, contacted the person in charge of education in various countries, strengthened international cooperation and exchanges, and promoted high-level dialogue in the field of education in China.

    Hold high-level seminars. In order to meet the actual needs of national education reform and development, the National Committee for UNESCO, with the support of UNESCO, has organized a series of international seminars with considerable scale and influence, such as those held in the past two years:

    1. The fourth Ministerial Conference on Education for All of the Largest Developing Countries (2001)
    2. International Symposium on Rural Education (2003)
    3. Conference on Education Innovation in the Asia-Pacific Region
    4. Conference of Presidents of the World Open University
    5. The Conference on Education for Environment and Population Health for Sustainable Development (2003 )

    These seminars provided a good opportunity for the Chinese education community to publicize the achievements and learn useful experiences from other countries.

    Implement the Education for All program. Since the World Conference on Education for All in 1990, UNESCO has focused its work in the field of education on the development of basic education, literacy and vocational and technical education.

    In order to cooperate with the goal of achieving the "two basics" proposed by the Ministry of National Education at the end of the twentieth century, UNESCO has cooperated in some activities that not only promote the development of domestic education but also have a good international impact.

    Science field

    UNESCO covers a wide range of sciences. In addition to basic sciences and engineering sciences, the main focus is on the major issues facing humanity, such as sustainable development issues, bioethics issues, human security issues, and water resources management issues.

    To this end, UNESCO has specifically set up the following key planned projects:

    Man and biosphere project

    The plan is UNESCO’s intergovernmental scientific plan for population, resources, and environmental issues facing the world.

    China joined the program in 1978 and established the "Chinese and Biosphere National Committee", which is located in the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    The main responsibilities of the committee are to determine the priority areas of the man and biosphere plan in China, and to organize implementation and provide guidance, as well as provide policy advice to the government.

    As of 2004, a total of 25 sites in China have been listed by UNESCO as reserved sites for people and the biosphere.

    International Hydrological Project

    The International Hydrological Program carries out global water science research, conducts international training and exchange of information on water science, improves the understanding of water science among decision-makers and the public in all countries, strengthens the development of water resources master plans by Member States, and helps solve major water resources Socio-economic development issues related to water are the main objectives.

    In 1975, China established the "National Committee on International Hydrology in China", which was established in the Ministry of Water Resources. In 1983, UNESCO established the "International Sediment Research and Training Center" in China.

    The mission of the "center" is to promote scientific research on sediment, undertake technical consultation, coordinate the research activities of experts from various countries, organize international training and academic seminars, participate in research on major river sediments in the country, and undertake consulting on related projects.

    International Geological Contrast Program (IGCP)

    The main objectives of the plan are:

    1. Enhance understanding of global environmental control factors and improve human living conditions

    2. Propose more effective ways for the development and utilization of natural resources such as energy and minerals

    3. Comparative research to improve understanding of geological functions and geological concepts

    4. Improve research methods and technical level.

    The plan also involves managing and exploring mineral resources and solving various environmental problems.

    In recent years, the focus has been on disaster mitigation, disaster resistance, and raising awareness of natural disasters.

    China has been led by the Ministry of Land and Resources, and has participated in 96 projects of the International Geological Contrast Program (IGCP) since 1977, of which 14 have presided over and co-chaired 14. Over 1,000 scientists in China have participated in the IGCP project.

    Since 1996, UNESCO has supported countries to establish "World Geoparks supported by UNESCO".

    There are three goals for establishing a geopark:

    1. Maintain a healthy environment

    2. Conduct extensive geological science education

    3. Achieve the sustainable development of the local economy. China officially started this work in 1998.

    So far, 44 national geoparks have been established throughout the country.

    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was established in 1961.

    It is a functional self-governing agency in charge of global marine scientific and technological affairs of UNESCO and one of UNESCO’s two flagship projects.

    The purpose of the IOC is to promote marine scientific investigations and provide related services, so as to understand the nature of the ocean and the status of marine resources through the concerted action of Member States, and help countries, especially developing countries, improve their marine research capabilities.

    The IOC is changing from a purely international organization focusing on marine scientific research investigations to a full range of marine international organizations including marine surveys, marine services, marine and coastal zone management, marine law and policy formulation, and playing a role in the international marine community. This plays an increasingly important role.

    The State Oceanic Administration's active participation in the activities of the IOC has played a beneficial role in enhancing China's marine scientific research capabilities, acquiring marine scientific and technological information, training marine scientific and technological talents, and promoting regional marine research cooperation.

    Sustainable Development

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) emphasized that science has been given an extremely important role in establishing a reliable framework for making appropriate decisions and formulating wise policies to promote sustainable development.

    UNESCO used the conclusions and recommendations of the conference to formulate its own scientific plan. 

    It also used the conclusions and recommendations of the scientific conference held in Budapest in 1999.

    By integrating information and communication technologies into improving science and cultural education and building a knowledge society, UNESCO continues to carry out actions in the field of science to eradicate poverty, especially extreme poverty.

    The purpose of this work is to improve the security situation of human beings through the rational management of the environment, the incorporation of environmental perspectives into national development strategies, and the strengthening of the role of national associations and organizations, especially those related to women’s rights, in order to embark on sustainable development. the way.

    UNESCO is also involved in improving the capabilities of developing countries, especially in the fields of basic sciences, life sciences, and engineering and technology.

    In addition, UNESCO (through its work with funding agencies) provides advice and technical assistance to governments to enable them to formulate and implement effective policies and strategies in the field of science and technology.

    UNESCO cooperates with many UN agencies, UN scientific and technological organizations and non-governmental organizations.

    Its main partners include the International Science Council and the International Engineering and Technology Council, which oversee various scientific centers and research groups.

    Water is a priority issue of priority for UNESCO. Therefore, the "International Hydrological Program" aims to provide the necessary scientific knowledge, technical information and strategic advice to manage this precious resource in an effective and fair manner while respecting the environment.

    Similarly, the International Hydrological Program is committed to developing tools and developing prevention strategies to avoid conflicts between countries or even within a country over water issues.

    In addition, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, in addition to coordinating United Nations agencies, is also responsible for long-term monitoring of the ocean’s conditions to improve weather forecasts, predict the occurrence of El Niño, and be able to issue early warnings long enough in the event of a tsunami or hurricane.

    The committee is involved in the establishment of the Global Ocean Observing System, which will ensure the connection between data provided by buoys, ships and dedicated satellites to better understand the connection between ocean currents and climate.

    Cultural Field

    UNESCO’s activities in the cultural field involve cultural policy, cultural diversity, art, copyright, material and intangible heritage, intercultural dialogue, history, culture and youth, culture and women, and gender equality.

    In recent years, China’s participation in the organization ’s cultural activities has focused on the following aspects: declaration and protection of world heritage, protection of intangible cultural heritage, discussions on cultural policies, and participation in the formulation or revision of some international conventions on the protection of cultural relics.

    Cultural and Natural Heritage

    The protection of the world’s cultural and natural heritage is an international cooperation activity initiated by UNESCO and welcomed by all countries. It is also another UNESCO’s most influential flagship project.

    The main purpose of this activity is to confirm the world heritage that meets the standard and to protect the monuments and natural landscapes / resources with “outstanding significance and universal value” in the parties to the Convention.

    In 1972, the organization’s 17th Congress adopted the Convention for the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage.

    To date, 190 countries have ratified or acceded to the Convention. A total of 981 heritage sites worldwide have been included in the World Heritage List.

    China joined the "World Heritage Convention" in 1985. So far, 46 cultural and natural heritages in China have been approved for inclusion in the "World Heritage List."

    As a result, our country has the second largest number of heritages in the world after Italy. In June 2004, the 28th World Heritage Committee meeting was held in Suzhou, which was the first time China hosted the meeting.

    As of June 2013, the total number of global world heritage sites reached 981, and the number of China’s world heritage sites increased to 46, ranking second in the World Heritage List of countries, second only to Italy with 49 world heritage sites.

    The 38th World Heritage Conference being held in Doha, Qatar, on the 22nd (Beijing time), voted on the application of the "Great Canal" cultural heritage application submitted by China at this session, and the project was successfully selected into the "World Heritage List." There are 46 World Heritage sites in China.

    The "Grand Canal" cultural heritage application project consists of the Sui and Tang Grand Canal with Luoyang as the center during the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal starting with Beijing and Hangzhou during the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, and the East Zhejiang Canal connecting Ningbo to the sea and the Maritime Silk Road. 

    It consists of three rivers, involving 27 sections of river channels and 58 heritage sites in 27 cities and 8 provinces and cities along the route, with a total length of 1011 kilometers. 

    The Grand Canal is the world's oldest canal with the largest scale, the longest route, and the longest duration.

    It is listed as the most influential channel in the International List of Canal Monuments by the International Commission for the Protection of Industrial Heritage.

    Intangible Cultural Heritage

    The protection of intangible cultural heritage is a priority plan that UNESCO has gradually perfected in recent years.

    The Ministry of Culture of China has been paying attention to the development of the project, and has actively participated in related activities, seminars and policy discussions.

    Intangible culture includes all traditional and folk cultural expressions, such as oral cultural traditions, customs, language, music, dance, religious ceremonies, festivals, traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia, culinary arts, and all physical cultures (such as tools and settlements, etc.) related special skills.

    In 2001, after being nominated by various countries and reviewed by an expert committee, UNESCO announced the first batch of Masterpieces of Human Oral and Intangible Heritage, among which Kunqu in China was listed. The second batch of "Masterpieces" was announced in 2003, and the Chinese Guqin was successfully selected.

    According to regulations, "representatives" are published every two years.

    As of the end of November 2011, China's total number of projects in the UNESCO World Intangible Cultural Heritage List has reached 36, making it the country with the largest number of "intangible" projects in the world. 

    The 36 projects included in the Intangible Heritage List include:

    1. Kunqu Opera (2001)

    2. Chinese Guqin Art (2003)

    3. Xinjiang Uyghur Muqam Art (2005)

    4. Mongolian long-tune folk song (2005)

    5. Chinese Silkworm and Silk Weaving Skills (2009)

    6. Fujian Nanyin (2009)

    7. Nanjing Yunjin (2009)

    8. Anhui Rice Paper (2009)

    9. Guizhou Dong Song (2009)

    10. Guangdong Cantonese Opera (2009)

    11. The epic of Gesar (2009)

    12. Zhejiang Longquan Celadon (2009)

    13. Regong Art in Qinghai (2009)

    14. Tibetan Opera (2009)

    15. Xinjiang "Manas" (2009)

    16. Mongolian Humai (2009)

    17. Ganer Huaer (2009)

    18. Xi'an Drum Music (2009)

    19. Korean Nongle Dance (2009)

    20. Chinese Calligraphy (2009)

    21. Chinese Seal Cutting (2009)

    22. Chinese Paper Cutting (2009)

    23. China Engraving Printing (2009)

    24. Chinese traditional wooden construction skills (2009)

    25. Chinese Dragon Boat Festival (2009)

    26. Mazu Belief (2009)

    27. Peking Opera (2011)

    28. Chinese Medicine Acupuncture (2011)

    29. Qiang Year (List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Urgent Need of Protection) (2009)

    30. Traditional Spinning, Dyeing, Weaving and Embroidering Skills of the Li Nationality (List of Intangible Cultural Heritage Urgently in Need of Protection) (2009)

    31. Chinese wooden arch bridge traditional construction skills (list of intangible cultural heritage in urgent need of protection) (2009)

    32. Maisizhefu (Intangible Cultural Heritage List in Need of Urgent Protection) (2010)

    33. Chinese movable type printing (list of intangible cultural heritage in urgent need of protection) (2010)

    34. Manufacturing Skills of Chinese Watertight Cabin Fu Boat (Intangible Cultural Heritage List in Need of Urgent Protection) (2010)

    35. Chinese Shadow Play (2011)

    36. The Rhea of ​​the Hezhe Ethnic Group (Intangible Cultural Heritage List in Urgent Need of Protection) (2011)

    Memory Heritage

    The memory heritage reflects the diversity of languages, nations and cultures. It is a mirror of the world and a memory of the world.

    However, this kind of memory is fragile, and the only important memories that are left are disappearing every day. 

    Therefore, UNESCO launched the World Memory Program to prevent the loss of collective memory, and called for the protection of valuable cultural heritage and collection documents, and let their value be widely spread around the world.

    A total of 299 documents and collections of world significance from 100 countries were selected in the "Memories of the World". Among them, 9 ancient documentary heritages in China have been selected in the "World Memory List":

    1. Chinese traditional music recording archives (1997, existing library of China Academy of Art)

    2. Secret document of the cabinet of the Qing dynasty (1999, currently the first historical archive in China)

    3. The Great Golden List of the Qing Dynasty (2003, the first historical archive in China)

    4. Naxi Dongba Ancient Books and Documents (2005, existing Dongba Culture Institute of Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences)

    5. Architectural drawing archives of mines in the Qing Dynasty in China (2007, existing National Library of China, etc.).

    6. "Compendium of Materia Medica" (2011, 1593 Jinling Edition Existing National Library of China)

    7. "The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classics" (2011, 1339, the carved book of Hu's Gulin Shutang exists in the China-Japan-US library)

    8. Overseas Chinese Approved Archives-Overseas Overseas Chinese Bank Letters (2013, Existing Guangdong Provincial Archives Bureau and Fujian Provincial Archives Bureau)

    9. The official archives of Tibet in the Yuan Dynasty of China (2013, the existing archives of the Tibet Autonomous Region)

    10. Nanjing Massacre Archive (2015, the existing Nanjing Massacre Archive)

    4. Cultural policy and other international conventions

    Cultural Diversity

    The focus on promoting cultural diversity can be seen as a priority for UNESCO’s actions in the cultural field. 

    In order to enrich diversity, diversity should be based on recognizing others and their culture and conducting dialogues so that they can understand and appreciate each other. 

    Therefore, if there is no one and no discussion, cultural diversity cannot continue to exist.

    Through the UNESCO Declaration on World Cultural Diversity made at the thirty-first session of the Executive Board in 2001, Member States reaffirmed their belief that cultural diversity is one of the sources of development, and its importance to human Biodiversity is just as important to nature.

    In addition, countries resolutely abandon the view that conflicts between cultures and civilizations are inevitable.

    UNESCO has created the Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity. The alliance has spawned new partnerships between public and private sector actors in developing countries to support local cultural industries such as music and publishing.

    The alliance will develop new methods, actions and strategies to alleviate trade imbalances in cultural property, especially between northern and southern countries, while preventing piracy and ensuring international respect for copyright.

    In addition, the organization is the leader of international initiatives in heritage protection. 

    The Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted in 1972, is based on the view that certain sites have universal outstanding value and therefore should be listed as a common heritage of mankind.

    Without prejudice to national sovereignty and intellectual property rights stipulated in domestic legislation, the parties to the Convention recognize that the protection of world heritage is an obligation of the entire international community.

    The World Heritage List now includes 981 natural and cultural heritage, including historical sites from the Taj Mahal in India to Timbuktu City in Mali, as well as natural wonders like Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. The World Heritage Center is the permanent secretariat of the Convention.

    UNESCO provides technical assistance for the protection of special heritage, such as the ancient Khmer capital of (Cambodia) Angkor and the city of Fes in Morocco.

    A new project is underway in Afghanistan, and the richness of Afghanistan’s cultural heritage is among the best in the world.

    This aspect of our common heritage, namely cultural and natural sites, cannot be separated from human personality. 

    It is people with different personalities who have created diverse and colorful cultural and natural heritages of cultural expressions, especially in development country.

    Most of this cultural heritage is expressed in the form of intangible heritage: Festivals, songs, language and meeting places that inspire creativity and solidarity. 

    UNESCO has developed the first international legal instrument to protect this heritage: The Convention on the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

    An international review committee selected the first 19 "List of Representatives of Human Oral and Intangible Heritage" in 2001, including Kunqu in China. 

    The committee regularly included other masterpieces on the list to provide legal protection and financial assistance.

    The form is:

    (1), formulate international normative documents, such as conventions, protocols, proposals, declarations, etc.

    (2) Convene various international intergovernmental meetings

    (3) Organize various professional academic research activities

    (4). Publish all kinds of books, periodicals, reports, documents, audiovisual products and electronic products

    (5) Provide technical assistance to Member States in the form of expert consultation and equipment support

    (6) Organize training, training, internship and other activities

    (7) Provide support to non-governmental international organizations

    (8) Cooperate with Member States and regional institutions to carry out business activities

    UNESCO holds a high-level international conference on cultural policy every ten years.

    China participated in the 1998 Intergovernmental International Conference on "Cultural Policy Serves Development" held in Stockholm, Sweden. 

    The conference proposed to incorporate culture into the core policy decision-making process of sustainable development.

    Today UNESCO is focusing on introducing the principle of cultural diversity in international law. 

    The 32nd Congress of the organization (October 2003) has approved the drafting of an international normative document on cultural diversity.

    Who can get Assistance from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?

    UNESCO’s assistance to Member States is mainly reflected through intellectual cooperation, such as:

    • Sending experts
    • Organizing large or professional international conferences / seminars / personnel training
    • Participating in the capacity building of Member States in related fields, and formulating international guidelines
    • Sex documents, proposing or advocating new ideas and ideas, etc.

    An important window and position for international exchanges in the fields of multilateral diplomacy and education, science, culture, and communication.

    The cooperation with the organization in the fields of education for all, literacy, higher education, heritage protection, and biodiversity, ocean, hydrology, geology and other fields has made remarkable achievements, and has produced huge social and economic benefits.

    What are the Publications United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO?

    The "Messenger" magazine, a quarterly magazine, was first published in 1948, but was suspended in 2012 due to financial reasons.

    In May 2017, it was reissued with Chinese government funding. There are 8 texts in Chinese, English, Esperanto, French, Arabic, Russian and Portuguese.

    • The Esperanto version of The Courier magazine is published by the International Esperanto Association, and the editor-in-chief is Huang Yinbao.
    • "Education Outlook" quarterly, Chinese, English, Western, Russian
    • English and French of International Education Journal
    • Quarterly "Nature and Resources", Chinese, English, French, Spanish
    • Quarterly "International Journal of Social Sciences" in Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian
    • "Museum" quarterly, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Spanish
    • Quarterly Journal of the Copyright Convention, in Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian
    • Yearbook of UNESCO Statistical Yearbook, English, French, Spanish
    • "Study abroad" annual report, English and French
    • The Biennial of "World Education Report" has been published in four issues, in Chinese, English, French, German, Spanish and Russian

    The Biennial of "World Scientific Report" has been published in three issues, in Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian

    "World Culture Report" is irregular, English and French

    The World Communication Report is unscheduled and has been published in three issues, in Chinese, English, French, Spanish and Russian.

    Relations with China

    China is one of the founding countries of UNESCO. Since the legal status of the People’s Republic of China was confirmed on October 29, 1971, China has played an active role in various activities of the organization.

    Since 1993, UNESCO has provided various kinds of support to literacy, adult technical training, girls’education research, minority education research and basic education innovation in some western regions of China, including the organization of seminars, training courses, development assistance Local training materials and funding pilot projects, etc.

    In December 2003, China established the China Education for All Forum composed of ten ministries and social organizations, and proposed a new "China Education for All Action Plan." 

    Under this forum, China will cooperate with UNESCO to organize a themed forum event and seminar each year.

    Relevant Important Information

    On October 31, 2011, the UNESCO General Assembly voted to pass a proposal for Palestine to join the organization as a member.

    On the same day, UNESCO held a meeting in Paris, France, to consider the proposal to admit Palestine as a member of the organization, and finally passed the proposal with 107 votes in favor, 14 votes against, and 52 abstentions. 

    This is the first time Palestine has been approved to join the UN agency as a member.

    U.S. Suspension of Payment

    The US government announced on October 31, 2011 that, in response to UNESCO’s vote to accept Palestine as a full member, the United States suspended payment of $ 60 million in dues to the organization.

    US State Department spokesman Newland announced the above decision at a press conference in Washington.

    She accused UNESCO’s vote on the day to vote for the admission of Palestine as an official member of the country, which was “sadly and immature”, which would damage the achievement of a “full, just and lasting peace” between Palestine and Israel Ongoing effort.

    Newland said that the relevant laws passed by the United States would prohibit the provision of funds to United Nations agencies that formally recognize the status of Palestine before reaching a peace agreement between Palestine and Israel.

    Today, the United States’ contribution to UNESCO accounts for 22% of the agency’s total contribution income.

    White House spokesman Carney also accused UNESCO’s vote of being immature.

    He emphasized that the United States only supports efforts to promote direct negotiations between Palestine and Israel, because this is the only way to resolve the differences between Palestine and Israel.

    Iranian Attitude

    On November 1, 2011, the spokesperson of the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Mehman Palast said in Tehran that Palestine’s membership in UNESCO indicates the international community’s support for Palestine.

    Mehman Palast also said at the Foreign Ministry’s regular press conference that the US government should not stand on the opposite side of the world’s mainstream, but should understand the Palestinian issue in a realistic manner.

    He urged the United States to abandon its full support for Israel, believing that the move humiliated the United States’ own reputation.

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