International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO of the United Nations

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) of the United Nations

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1944 to promote the safe and orderly development of civil aviation worldwide. Headquartered in Montreal, Canada, ICAO formulates international air transport standards and regulations and is the medium for cooperation among 191 Contracting States (as of 2011) in the field of civil aviation.  

On September 28, 2013, China was re-elected as a first class member at the 38th ICAO General Assembly held in Montreal, Canada.  


UN Organization Name:    International Civil Aviation Organization
Headquarter Location:    Montreal, Canada
Chinese abbreviation:    International Civil Aviation Organization
Acronym:    ICAO
Official website:    http://www.icao.int
Founding Date:    December 7, 1944
Founding location:    Chicago, USA
Location:    United Nations specialized agencies
Members:    191 Contracting States
President of the Council:    Olumuyva Bernard Alliu
Secretary:    Liu Fang


    History of The International Civil Aviation Organization?

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (International Civil Aviation Organization) was formerly known as the International Air Navigation Commission (ICAO) established under the Paris Convention of 1919. 

    Since the Second World War played a huge role in promoting the development of aircraft technology, the world has formed a route network including passenger and cargo transportation. 
    But it has also caused a series of political issues that urgently need to be resolved by the international community and also technical issues. Therefore, at the invitation of the US government, 52 countries from November 1 to December 7, 944, who participated in the international conference held in Chicago, signed the "International Civil Aviation Convention" (commonly known as the "Chicago Convention"), and established the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.  

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Logo and Seal
    On April 4, 1947, the "Chicago Convention" came into effect, and ICAO was formally established. The first meeting was held on May 6. On May 13 of the same year, ICAO officially became a specialized agency of the United Nations.

    On December 31, 1947, the International Air Navigation Commission terminated and transferred its assets to the International Civil Aviation Organization. 

    What is the Legal Status of The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)?

    1. The International Civil Aviation Organization is the subject of international law. This subject qualification is granted by the member states through the Chicago Convention. Article 47 of the Chicago Convention stipulates: 
    "The Organization shall have the legal capacity necessary to perform its functions in the territory of the Contracting State. Anyone who does not contravene the constitution and laws of the relevant country shall recognize its full legal personality."

    At the same time, the Chicago Convention also specifies the rights and obligations of ICAO as an independent entity in international exchanges. 

    It should be said that it already possesses the three characteristics that a subject of international law must possess, that is, it must have the ability to carry out international exchanges independently.

    It must have the rights directly granted by international law and must constitute an equal entity in the international community.

    2. The rights and behavioral capabilities of ICAO are mainly manifested in:

    Coordinate international civil aviation relations. Efforts to coordinate the relations and practices of various countries in various fields of international civil aviation, formulate unified standards, and promote the healthy and orderly development of international civil aviation.
    Resolve international civil aviation disputes. Over the years, ICAO has acted as a coordinator and has played an irreplaceable role in coordinating relations among nations; concluding international treaties.

    ICAO not only participates in the formulation of international treaties, but also signs international treaties as parties to treaties;

    Privileges and immunities. Representatives of ICAO member states and officials of the organization enjoy the privileges and immunities necessary to achieve the organization’s purpose and perform their duties in the field of each member state.
    Participate in the formulation of international aviation law. Under the auspices of ICAO, many international conventions involving various aspects of civil aviation activities have been formulated, ranging from amendments to the Chicago Convention and its annexes to the suppression of illegal acts that illegally interfere with the safety of civil aviation, as well as a series of Series of international documents.

    3. ICAO is an intergovernmental international organization and a specialized agency of the United Nations.
    ICAO is an official international organization in which sovereign states participate in the name of their own governments. 

    The legal body that obtains membership in ICAO is the state, and it is their legal government that represents these countries. 
    In this regard, Chapter 21 of the Chicago Convention clearly stipulates that any other non-political entities and groups may be queued up to become members of ICAO.
    Also, more than two government agencies may be queued to represent the same country as ICAO. The possibility of members.
    4. ICAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
    In 1946, the United Nations and ICAO signed an agreement on their relationship, which entered into force on May 13, 1947. 

    Accordingly, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations. This type of specialized agency refers to an intergovernmental specialized international organization that has established a legal relationship with the United Nations through a special agreement or has been created by the decision of the United Nations and has "broad international responsibilities" for a specific business area. 

    But they are not affiliated agencies of the United Nations, but enjoy an autonomous status in the entire United Nations system. 

    Coordination and unification are an important principle of the relationship between these specialized agencies and the United Nations. The United Nations recognizes ICAO’s functions within its mandate. 

    ICAO recognizes that the United Nations has the right to make recommendations and coordinate its activities. It also regularly submits work reports to the United Nations and sends representatives to each other’s meetings without the right to vote. An organization can also participate in the work of another organization as needed.

    What is the Purpose of The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)?

    The purpose and purpose of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is to develop the principles and technologies of international navigation and promote the planning and development of international air transport in order to achieve the following objectives:

        To ensure the safe and orderly development of international civil aviation worldwide.
        Encourage the design and operation of aircraft for peaceful uses.
        Encourage the development of airways, airports and navigation facilities for international civil aviation applications.
        Meet the needs of the people of the world for safe, normal, effective and economic air transportation.
        Prevent economic waste due to unreasonable competition.
        Ensure that the rights of the contracting states are fully respected, and that each contracting state has a fair opportunity to operate an international air transport enterprise.
        To avoid differential treatment between Contracting States; to promote flight safety in international navigation.

    To generally promote the development of international civil aviation in all aspects.

    The above nine articles involve two aspects of international navigation and international air transport. 
    The former is a technical issue, mainly security.
    The latter is an economic and legal issue, mainly fair and reasonable, respecting sovereignty. 

    The common purpose of the two is to ensure the safe, normal, effective and orderly development of international civil aviation.  

    What is the Organization Structure of The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)?

    ICAO consists of a three-level framework of the Assembly, Council and Secretariat.  
    Chairman of the Council Aliu (Olumuyiwa Bernard Aliu, Nigerian), who took office in 2013, will serve until 2016.  
    Secretary General Liu Fang (Chinese) was elected in March 2015 and will serve until 2018. 

    What is ICAO General Assembly?

    The Assembly is the highest authority of ICAO and is composed of all Member States. 

    The General Assembly is convened by the Council and is usually held every three years. 

    In special circumstances or after more than one-fifth of the Member States request the Secretary-General, a special meeting may be convened.

    General Assembly resolutions are generally passed by more than half. 

    Each member country participating in the conference has only one vote. However, in some cases, such as any amendments to the Chicago Convention, a two-thirds majority vote is required.
    The main functions of the conference are: 
    1. To elect members of the council
    2. To review the reports of the council, to propose a work plan for the next three years
    3. Vote on the annual financial budget
    4. To authorize the necessary powers of the council to perform its duties
    5. To withdraw or change this at any time Power, to consider proposals to amend the Chicago Convention
    6. Consider other proposals submitted to the General Assembly
    7. To implement agreements signed with international organizations, to deal with other matters, etc.
    During the convening of the conference, it is generally divided into five committees: conference, administration, technology, law, and economy to discuss and decide on various matters, and then submit to the conference for consideration. 

    What is ICAO Council?

    The Council is a permanent body accountable to the General Assembly and is composed of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly. 

    The board of directors is divided into three categories: 
    1. The first category is the member states that are particularly important in the field of air transport
    2. Second category is the member states that have made outstanding contributions to the development of the provision of international air transport.
    3. The third category is the regional representative member states. The proportional distribution is 10:11:12.

    The ICAO Council has a Chairman

    The chairman is elected by the board of directors for a three-year term and can be re-elected.
    The council meets three times a year, and each meeting lasts about two months. 

    There are eight committees under the council for finance, technical cooperation, illegal interference, navigation, new navigation system, transportation, joint navigation and Edward Award. 
    Before each council meeting, each committee meets separately to submit documents, reports or questions to the council.

    The main responsibilities of the Council include: 
    Implementation of the General Assembly’s mandate and reporting to the General Assembly on the implementation of the Organization and the countries’ conventions.

    Management of the Organization’s finances
    Leading the work of its subordinate agencies; adoption of the Convention’s annexes.

    To study and participate in issues related to the development and operation of international air transport and notify member states to adjudicate disputes and violations of the Chicago Convention.  

    The current ICAO President of the Council, Olumuywa Bernard Aleu, was elected in 2014 and will hold the position until January 1, 2020. 

    On November 25, 2019, Salvatore Sciacchitano was elected as the new ICAO Council President, and Salvatore Sciacchitano will officially begin its three-year term on January 1, 2020.

    What is ICAO Secretariat?

    The Secretariat is the permanent administrative organization of ICAO. The Secretary-General is responsible for ensuring the smooth progress of ICAO's work. 

    The Secretary-General is appointed by the Council, and the current Secretary-General is General Costa Pereira (Brazilian). 

    The secretariat has five bureaus including:
    1. The Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau
    2. Legal Bureau
    3. The Technical Cooperation Bureau
    4. The Administration Bureau, as well as the Finance Office and the Foreign Affairs Office.

     In addition, the Secretariat has a Regional Affairs Office and seven regional offices, located in Bangkok, Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City, Nerovar and Paris. 

    The regional office is directly led by the Secretary-General and its main task is to establish and assist the contracting States to implement international standards and construction measures established by ICAO and regional planning. 

    The International Civil Aviation Organization Members

    The qualifications of ICAO members are regulated by the 1944 Chicago Convention and the agreement between ICAO and the United Nations.

    1. Membership of ICAO

    Each country obtains ICAO membership by ratifying and acceding to the Chicago Convention. 

    The Chicago Convention stipulates that the Convention will enter into force after it has been ratified by 26 countries. Therefore, the 26 countries that initially ratified the Convention became the founding members of ICAO.

    The founding member does not have any privileges, and has the same rights and obligations as the members who subsequently join. 

    After the convention comes into force, it will be open for accession, but the scope is limited to the member states of the United Nations, the countries that are united with the members of the United Nations, or the neutral countries in the Second World War. 

    At the same time, the convention also allows other countries to join, but it needs the permission of the United Nations and the General Assembly to pass four-fifths of the votes. 

    If the country invaded or attacked another country in the Second World War, it must be invaded or After the consent of the attacking country, ICAO forwards the application to the General Assembly of the United Nations. 

    If the Assembly does not propose to reject the application at the first meeting after receiving the first application, ICAO can.

    The Convention provides for approval of the applicant country to join ICAO.  

    2. Suspension or suspension of voting rights

    According to the provisions of the Chicago Convention, any member country that fails to fulfill its financial obligations or violates the provisions of the Convention on disputes and breach of contract within a reasonable period of time will be suspended or suspended from voting in the General Assembly and the Council.

    If the UN General Assembly recommends refusing a government to participate in an international institution established or related to the UN, the country automatically loses its membership in ICAO.

    However, after the county’s application is approved by the majority of the Council and approved by the United Nations General Assembly, its membership can be restored. 

    3. Withdrawal from the Convention

    Any Contracting State may withdraw from the Convention one year after the date of service of the notice of withdrawal from the Chicago Convention and withdraw from ICAO.

     If the resolution of the amendment to the relevant convention stipulates that any country fails to ratify within the prescribed period after the amendment takes effect, it will lose its membership in ICAO.

    For a State party that has not fulfilled this obligation, it has been denied membership.  

    ICAO Member States (188)

    1. Afghanistan
    2. Albania
    3. Algeria
    4. Andorra
    5. Angola
    6. Antigua and Barbuda
    7. Argentina
    8. Armenia
    9. Australia
    10. Austria
    11. Azerbaijan
    12. Bahamas
    13. Bahrain
    14. Bangladesh
    15. Barbados
    16. Belarus
    17. Belgium
    18. Belize
    19. Benin
    20. Bhutan
    21. Bolivia
    22. Bosnia and Herzegovina
    23. Botswana
    24. Brazil
    25. Brunei
    26. Bulgaria
    27. Burkina Faso
    28. Burundi
    29. Cambodia
    30. Cameroon
    31. Canada
    32. Cape verde
    33. Central Africa
    34. Chad
    35. Chile
    36. China
    37. Colombia
    38. Comoros
    39. Congo
    40. Island
    41. Costa rica
    42. Croatia
    43. Cuba
    44. Cyprus
    45. Czech Republic
    46. Ivory Coast
    47. Korea
    48. Congo (Citizen)
    49. Denmark
    50. Djibouti
    51. Dominica
    52. Ecuador
    53. Egypt
    54. El Salvador
    55. Equatorial Guinea
    56. Eritrea
    57. Estonia
    58. Ethiopia
    59. Fiji
    60. Finland
    61. France
    62. Gabon
    63. Gambia
    64. Georgia
    65. Germany
    66. Ghana
    67. Greece
    68. Grenada
    69. Guatemala
    70. Guinea-Bissau
    71. Guinea
    72. Guyana
    73. Haiti
    74. Honduras
    75. Hungary
    76. Iceland
    77. India
    78. Indonesia
    79. Iran
    80. Iraq
    81. Ireland
    82. Israel
    83. Italy
    84. Jamaica
    85. Japan
    86. Jordan
    87. Kazakhstan
    88. Kenya
    89. Kiribati
    90. Kuwait
    91. Kyrgyzstan
    92. Laos
    93. Latvia
    94. Lebanon
    95. Lesotho
    96. Liberia
    97. Libya
    98. Lithuania
    99. Luxembourg
    100. Madagascar
    101. Malawi
    102. Malaysia
    103. Maldives
    104. Mali
    105. Malta
    106. Marshall Islands
    107. Mauritania
    108. Mauritius
    109. Mexico
    110. Monaco
    111. Micronesia
    112. Mongolia
    113. Morocco
    114. Mozambique
    115. Myanmar
    116. Namibia
    117. Nauru
    118. Nepal
    119. Nerlands
    120. new Zealand
    121. Nicaragua
    122. Nigeria
    123. Niger
    124. Norway
    125. Oman
    126. Pakistan
    127. Palau
    128. Panama
    129. Paraguay
    130. Peru
    131. Philippines
    132. Papua New Guinea
    133. Poland
    134. Portugal
    135. Qatar
    136. Korea
    137. Moldova
    138. Romania
    139. Russia
    140. Rwanda
    141. Santa lucia
    142. Samoa
    143. San Marino
    144. Saint puerto
    145. Senegal
    146. Saint Kitts and Nevis
    147. Saudi Arabia
    148. Seychelles
    149. Sierra Leone
    150. Singapore
    151. Slovakia
    152. Slovenia
    153. Saint Vincent and Grenada
    154. Somalia
    155. South Africa
    156. Spain
    157. Sri Lanka
    158. Sudan
    159. Solomon Islands
    160. Serbia and Montenegro
    161. Suriname
    162. Swaziland
    163. Sweden
    164. Switzerland
    165. Syria
    166. Thailand
    167. Tajikistan
    168. Macedonia
    169. Togo
    170. Tonga
    171. Tunisia
    172. Turkey
    173. Turkmenistan
    174. Trinidad Tobago
    175. Uganda
    176. Ukraine
    177. UAE
    178. United Kingdom
    179. Tanzania
    180. United States
    181. Uzbekistan
    182. Uruguay
    183. Vanuatu
    184. Venezuela
    185. Vietnam
    186. Yemen
    187. Zambia
    188. Zimbabwe


    What are the main activities of The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)?

    In accordance with the authorization of the Chicago Convention, ICAO develops principles and technologies for international navigation.

     In the past two decades, various new technologies have developed rapidly, and the global economy has also undergone tremendous changes in the environment, posing an unprecedented challenge to the international civil aviation navigation and transportation management system. 

    In order to enhance work efficiency and pertinence, and continue to maintain its leading position in international civil aviation, ICAO has formulated a strategic work plan, redefined the focus of work, and approved its implementation by its council in February 1997.  

    (1) Regulations (Constitutional Affairs)

    Revise the current international civil aviation regulations and formulate new legal documents. 
    The main items are:
    Urge more countries to join subsection 3 of the Chicago Convention on the non-use of force against civil aircraft and subsection 83 of the transfer of certain safety responsibilities from the country of registration of the aircraft to the user when chartering, leasing and replacing aircraft (Our country has joined).
    Urge more countries to join the International Flight Transit Agreement (China has not yet joined).
    Drafted the "New Warsaw Convention" on a unified carrier's liability system.
    Draft an international legal framework on navigation satellite services.  

    (2) Navigation (Air Navigation)

    It is the main work of ICAO to develop and update international technical standards and recommended measures on navigation. 

    17 of the 18 annexes of the Chicago Convention are related to navigation technology.

    The strategic work plan requires that this work keep up with the pace of development of international civil aviation and maintain the applicability of these standards and recommended measures.
    It is the International Civil Aviation Organization’s “Regional Planning” 
    • To plan international airway networks in various regions.  
    • Authorize relevant countries to provide navigational aids and air traffic and meteorological services for international navigation
    • Make recommendations on the navigational facilities and services of countries within their own territories. 

    Air Navigation Planning) is operated by 7 regional offices. 
    As countries increasingly pursue their interests in international navigation, conflicts and disputes are increasing, making it difficult for the ICAO unified navigation plan to be fully implemented. 

    The strategic work plan requires strengthening the effectiveness of regional planning mechanisms and better coordinating the different requirements of various countries.

    (3) Safety Oversight Program

    The global major civil aviation accident rate averages 1.44 sorties / million sorties. 

    With the increase in air traffic, if this ratio does not decrease, the absolute number of accidents will also rise to an unacceptable level. 

    The ICAO has implemented safety inspection plans since the early 1990s. 

    The main content is that all countries accept on a voluntary basis ICAO’s assessment of the completeness of their aviation authority safety regulations and the safety level of airline operations. 
    This plan has been developed into a mandatory "Safety Audit Program" at the 32nd Congress, requiring all Contracting States to undergo an ICAO safety assessment.
    Safety issues exist not only in aircraft operations, but also in other areas of navigation, such as air traffic control and airport operations.

    In order to cover aspects not covered by the safety inspection plan, ICAO has also launched the "Program for Identifying Safety Shortcomings in the Air Navigation Field" program.
    As a theoretical study of aviation safety, currently implemented projects include "Human Factors" and "Prevention of Controlled Flight into Terrain".  

    (4) Stop illegal interference (Aviation Security)

    To prevent illegal interference is China's so-called security or air defense security. 

    The focus of this work is to urge Contracting States to strengthen the security of the airport in accordance with the standards and recommended measures stipulated in Annex 17 "Security", while vigorously launching the ICAO’s security training program.

    (5) Implementation of the new navigation system (ICAO CNS / ATM Systems)

    The new navigation system, "ICAO Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Control System", is a revolutionary navigation system integrating computer network technology, satellite navigation and communication technology, and high-speed digital data communication technology. 
    It will replace the current Base navigation system greatly improves navigation efficiency.

    It was proposed by an international organization in the late 1980s.
    The concept was completed in the early 1990s and the global plan has now entered the transitional implementation stage. 

    There are still many non-technical problems to be solved for this new system to be universally applicable worldwide. Difficulties to be overcome by the strategic work plan include:
    The legal framework of satellite navigation service (GNSS), operating agencies, coordination and cooperation of global, regional and national implementation progress, financing and cost recovery.

    (6) Air Transport Services Regulation (Air Transport Services Regulation)

    The focus of ICAO’s work in the field of air transport is “Facilitation”, which is “to remove obstacles to facilitate the free and unimpeded crossing of international borders for aircraft and its passengers, crew, luggage, cargo and mail.”

    Of the 18 annexes, the only one that does not involve navigational technical issues is Annex 9 "Simplified Procedures" of the proposed measures for standardization of simplified procedures.

    Regarding the air transport management system, the 1944 International Civil Aviation Conference tried to formulate a multilateral agreement on commercial aviation rights to replace a large number of bilateral agreements. But most of the representatives did not agree.

    Therefore, the exchange of commercial aviation rights between countries is still determined by bilateral negotiations. 

    The responsibility of ICAO in this regard is to study the impact of changes in the global economic environment on the air transport management system, to provide analysis reports and recommendations to States, and to formulate specifications for certain operations in air transport. 

    The strategic work plan requires the ICAO to carry out the following tasks: revise the computer reservation system operating code of conduct, and study the impact of the General Agreement on Service Trade on the air transport management system.  

    (7) Statistics

    Article 54 of the Chicago Convention stipulates that the Council must request, collect, review, and publish statistical data, and each weak person has an obligation to submit such data.

    This is not only necessary to guide the deliberations of ICAO, but also essential to assist civil aviation authorities of various countries in formulating civil aviation policies according to the actual situation.

    These statistics mainly include: 
    • Carrier traffic
    • Sub-segment traffic
    • Flight origin and destination
    • Carrier finance
    • Fleet and personnel
    • Airport operations and finance
    • Route facilities business and finance
    • Aircraft registered in each country
    • Safety, general aviation and pilot licenses
    ICAO's statistical work also includes economic forecasting and assisting countries in planning civil aviation development.

    (8) Technical cooperation

    Before the 1990s, 5% of the aid funds from the United Nations Development Programme were used for civil aviation projects in developing countries. These were entrusted to the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau for implementation. Since then, the department has changed its focus of assistance and basically has not allocated funds for civil aviation projects.

    In view of the fact that many developing countries introduce new technologies for civil aviation mainly relying on foreign funds, ICAO emphasizes that it must continue to maintain its technical cooperation mechanism. 

    The sources of funds are firstly donated by developed countries, and secondly, self-funded by aided countries and entrusted to Implemented by the ICAO Technical Cooperation Bureau. 

    Many developed countries believe that the ICAO technical cooperation mechanism is inefficient and has a large number of people. 

    It also needs to withdraw 13% of the management fee from the project funds and rarely makes contributions to it.
    It mainly chooses to implement the project directly with the recipient country in a bilateral manner. 

    (9) Training

    ICAO provides assistance to civil aviation training colleges in various countries and regions to enable them to provide on-the-job training and foreign training in various fields of civil aviation to national personnel. 

    The strategic work plan requires that the focus of training in the future is to strengthen the standardization and pertinence of the curriculum.

    Relations with China

    China is one of the founding countries of the International Civil Aviation Organization. The old Chinese government signed the International Civil Aviation Convention in 1944, and officially became a member state in 1946.
    On November 19, 1971, the sixteenth meeting of the 74th Council of ICAO adopted a resolution recognizing the government of the People ’s Republic of China as the sole legal representative of China.
    In 1974, China recognized the "International Civil Aviation Convention" and participated in ICAO activities. In the same year, China was elected as a second-class member and successfully re-elected eight times.
    At the 35th ICAO Assembly in 2004, China was elected as a first-class member. Montreal has a permanent representative office of China to the ICAO Council.
    On September 28, 2013, China was re-elected as a first class member at the 38th ICAO General Assembly held in Montreal, Canada. 
    This is the fourth time since 2004 that China has re-elected any member. 
    There were 173 countries that participated in the polling elections that day. In addition to China, Germany, Japan, Italy, Australia, Russia, Brazil, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Canada also continued to be elected as first-class members. 
    Since resuming its participation in ICAO activities in 1974, China has been elected as a second-class member of ICAO for 10 consecutive times and was elected as a first-class member in 2004.
    Civil Aviation Organization officials go to Beijing Airport for safety audit.

    The ICAO General Assembly is held every three years. 
    This session of the General Assembly opens on September 24th, focusing on topics such as aviation safety, aviation security, environmental protection, transportation policy, and law. 

    Xia Xinghua, deputy director of the Civil Aviation Administration of China, led a Chinese government delegation to attend the conference.
    Driven by the sustained development of China's economy and society, China's air transport industry has entered a new stage of rapid development. As the second largest air transportation system in the world, in 2012, 

    China completed a total air transportation turnover of 61.03 billion ton-km, passenger traffic of 319 million passengers, and cargo and postal traffic of 5.503 million tons.

    In the past three years, the average annual growth rate was 12.6%, 11.5% and 7.0%. At the same time, China Civil Aviation has also made remarkable achievements in terms of safety records, provision of air navigation services, and ownership of airports and fleets. 

    In 2020, China's total number of transport airports will reach 260, which will meet the market demand for passenger traffic of approximately 700 million passengers.
    As one of the founding countries of ICAO, China actively participates in various ICAO activities and projects. 

    Since 2010, China has provided US $ 820,000 in donations to the ICAO Aviation Security Action Plan, Operational Safety and Continued Airworthiness Cooperation in North Asia, and the Comprehensive Implementation Plan for Aviation Safety in Africa, and cooperated with ICAO to train developing countries More than 200 aviation professionals. 

    ICAO and Space Technology

    In the early 1980s, the ICAO Council decided that it was necessary to thoroughly analyze and reassess the procedures and techniques that have been successfully used by international civil aviation for many years. Therefore, the Council established a Special Committee on Future Air Navigation Systems. 

    One of the most important conclusions this special committee will soon draw is that satellite technology provides a viable solution to the problems caused by the shortcomings of conventional ground-based systems. 

    The committee also concluded that the use of a global system is the only way to meet the future development and needs of international civil aviation, and satellite technology is an important factor in the global system.

    International Civil Aviation Organization-Future Air Navigation System

    Following the work of the Special Committee for Future Air Navigation Systems (1983-1988), a Special Committee for the Monitoring and Coordination of Future Air Navigation System Development and Transition Planning (Second Phase of Future Air Navigation System Special Committee) was established Years).

    The committee proposed a system concept widely accepted by the international civil aviation community. 
    This concept is called communication, navigation and surveillance, and air traffic management (CNS / ATM) systems. 
    This has now become a reality. 
    CAS / ATM systems are basically global. 
    Therefore, these systems depend to a large extent on the use of satellites for communication and navigation. 

    In order to establish the necessary regulations for air navigation using existing and future satellite technologies in, civil aviation, the following groups have been established within the organization:

    1. Aviation mobile communication team. 

    Established in 1991, it mainly develops international standards and recommended methods for the use of geostationary satellites for aviation voice and data communications. 

    Currently, this group is reviewing the issue of non-geostationary satellites in low-Earth orbit and medium-Earth orbit, and will develop appropriate technical regulations as appropriate.

    2. Formulating technical regulations

    The Global Navigation Satellite System Group, established in 1993, is currently formulating technical regulations on the use of existing satellite navigation systems (ie, Global Positioning System and Global Orbit Navigation Satellite System) and possible use of ground-based and satellite augmentation systems. 
    The team is also studying possible future (longer-term) navigation satellite systems and formulating the necessary technical regulations.

    3. Aviation Telecommunication Network Group

     Established in 1995, the task is to review the different types and forms of the long-term legal framework of the global navigation satellite system, and to formulate a legal framework based on certain basic principles. Submit to the next session of the General Assembly for approval. 

    What are the ICAO Related Publications?

    The International Civil Aviation Organization publishes various civil aviation technical economic and legal documents in four languages: English, French, Spanish and Russian.

    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) related published books

    Only the following types have been published and made available to the public:
    1. "International Civil Aviation Convention", Annex 10, Volume III. 
    The document contains international standards and recommended practices as well as guidance material for aeronautical mobile satellite services.
    2. "Guidelines for the Introduction and Actual Use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems".
    3. The ICAO Magazine occasionally publishes articles on different aspects of space technology and their use in international civil aviation.
    4. Monthly "International Civil Aviation Organization Bulletin".




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